Injection of GABA into the hemocoel
of Clione limacina, however, evoked elements of its complex predatory behavior, including tentacle protraction, mouth opening, and rhythmic movements of the buccal mass (Arshavsky et al., 1991, 1993).
This pericardial space is also referred to as a hemocoel
(Voltzow 1994), and the heart consists of one auricle and one ventricle in Lobatus gigas.
The juvenile parasite locates the first larval stages of the host insect and it is located in the hemocoel
where it begins to parasitize it.
Because the fungus requires penetration of the cuticle of the insect in order to reach the hemocoel
and develop, in some cases this process can cause the death of the host in a period of 3 to 14 d after the application (Gillespie & Claydon 1989).
The appearance of SFTSV in saliva and hemolymph suggests that the virus circulates in the tick hemocoel
and is expressed in saliva.
isolate JMO71 caused higher mortalities after 9-d because: 1) Heterorhabditis species have smaller range of body lengths and body widths in the IJ (<800 um, and about 29-20 um, respectively) (Nguyen 2010); 2) when in contact with an insect host, the IJs exsheath the previously retained J2 cuticle and enter the hemocoel
through the insect mouth, anus or spiracles or by penetrating the exoskeleton using a buccal 'tooth'-like structure (Bedding and Molyneux, 1981), Monteiro et al.
However, the tick Aponomma latum was found infecting some snakes, and a gamont and suspected sporocyst was observed in a slide preparation from one of these ectoparasites (but no developmental stages in the hemocoel
) (Figure 1e).
Blum et al., "From commensal to pathogen: translocation of Enterococcus faecalis from the midgut to the hemocoel
of Manduca sexta," mBio, vol.
Once inside the host hemocoel
, the IJ releases symbiotic bacteria and kills the host by a combination of toxins and septicemia.
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) are key control agents of insect pests because of their association with mutualistic bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, which are released into the hemocoel
of insects by infective juveniles (IJs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, respectively, causing septicemia and rapid death of the host within 24 to 48 h (Adams and Nguyen 2002).
javanus, place their eggs directly into the host hemocoel
Once the bacteria are delivered by the nematodes in the insect hemocoel
, it first invades insect immune system and then produces toxins which break its epithelial tissues and finally kills the insect.