We looked for the following pesticides: alpha-cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4; beta-cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4; gamma-cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4; delta-cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4; heptachlor
; 1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthale; epoxyheptachlor; endosulfan I; p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE); dieldrin; endrin; p,p'-DDD; endosulfan II; endrin aldehyde; p,p'-DDD+DDT; endosulfan sulfate; and methoxychlor.
Serum samples were analyzed for the following 24 chemicals: [alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), [alpha] and [gamma]-chlordane, heptachlor
epoxide A and B, heptachlor
, trans-nonachlor, o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo roethane (DDT), p,p'-DDT, o,p'-dichlorodiphenylethane (DDE), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p'-DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, mirex, and pentachloroanisole (an environmental metabolite of pentachlorophenol).
is highly toxic to humans and can be absorbed through the skin, lungs and the food tract.These chemicals are banned in most countries and in Kenya by the Pest Control Products Board.
The acutely hazardous substances included aldrin, dieldrin and heptachlor
, which are all pesticides.
2014), and organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, heptachlor
, [beta]-hexachlorocyclohexane ([beta]-HCH), [alpha]-HCH, and heptachlor
epoxide (Criswell et al.
Pesticides standard of organochlorines ([alpha], [beta] and [gamma]-HCHs, [delta]-HCH (i.s), p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan isomers (I,II), endosulfan sulfate, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor
epoxide), organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos) and pyrethroids (cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and fenvalerate) were purchased from Supelco (USA).
The equipment operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) for target compounds--21 OCP related chemicals, from the standard solution Pesticide Mix 1 (AccuStandard, New Haven, USA): hexachlorobenzene (HCB); hexaclorocyclohexane ([alpha], [beta], [delta] and [gamma]-HCH); Cis and Trans-Chlordane; oxychlordane; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p' and p,p'-DDD, DDE and DDT); [alpha] and [beta]-endosulfan; heptachlor
; cis and trans-heptachlor epoxide; methoxychlor and mirex.
For instance, in Japan, heptachlor
and chlordane are restricted for use in termite control owing to its harmful effects on human health and environment.
Universally important organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are para, para, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp-DDT), hexachloride benzene (HCB), chlordane, heptachlor
, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin.
These were [gamma]-HCH, [beta]-HCH, [delta]-HCH, heptachlor
, aldrin, [gamma]-chlordane, [alpha]-endosulfan, [beta]-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, dieldrin, endrin, and methoxychlor.
The 12 pesticide reference standards consisting of hexachlorobenzene, lindane, heptachlor
, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, alfa-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, dicofol, p,p-DDT, p, p-DDD, p,p-DDE, linadane d6 and 9 Polychlorinated biphenyl PCBs-18, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 180, 194 and PCB-209 of all near-100% purity were obtained from Dr.