Thus, in the fifth century B.C., we find Xanthus of Lydia (who had lived under Persian occupation) reporting that "when a man wants to take another man's wife as his own, he does so without force or secrecy but with mutual consent and approval." The medieval heresiographer
al-Baghdadi described an Iranian religious group, the Khurramis (from khurram din, or "joyous religion"), as permitting any pleasure, no matter how abominable, provided it did not harm others.
From the epistle of Ibn Dhakwan, himself an early Ibadi heresiographer
, it is clear that the Ibadiyya rejected the separatism of other Kharijite groups: "we hold that we are not forbidden to have relations of marriage and inheritance with our qawm [i.e., non-Ibadi Muslims] as long as they share our qibla"; (61) "we see it as our duty to respect the right of parents, relatives, orphans, poor people, travelers, companions, neighbors, and slaves, whether they are pious or impious"; (62) "God has given leave to those who reside among people of error to practice taqiyya." (63) Moreover, Ibn Dhakwan's portrait of the Ibadiyya as moderate in relation to non-Ibadites is mirrored by the accounts of the heresiographers
, and fits with their classification of the sect among the "quietist" Kharijites.
(56) The renowned heresiographer
Thn Hazm (384/994-456/1064) boasted of the transmission of Muslim doctrines by generations of reliable scholars.
Monnot, E12, s.v.), this important heresiographer
can hardly serve as a proof for De Smet's claim that the influence of the Pseudo-Ammonius "exceeds by far the limits of the [Isma.sup.[subset]]ili sect" (pp.
The name "(A)Saqlon," a transparent reflex of "Sakla(s)," is used for this entity by the eighth- century Nestorian heresiographer
Theodore bar Konai in his authoritative description of Manichaean cosmogonic and anthropogonic teachings.
This last point is unlikely to have been of the author's own making, since it matches a report preserved by the traditionalist heresiographer
Malati, who mentions that very practice in connection with an anonymous Kharijite group based in Sijistan, Herat, and Khurasan.(100) At first glance, Malati's presentation of this sect seems bizarre and incredible.(101) But when comparisons are made with the eastern material, some suggestive parallels arise.
Of the other possibilities - assuming that the Yemeni citation of the opening section of the Shajara as being "rain kalam al-Nakhshabi" points to one and the same work - there are the sons of al-Nasafi, who would have both carried the nisba "Nakhshabi." The better known son is Hasan Masud al-Nakhshabi, identified by al-Busti, by Nasir-i Khusraw, and by Abu Muhammad.(57) This last named witness is the heresiographer
who also knew of Abu Tammam and his Shajara.
In fact, this notion can be traced back to the early Shii milieu, specifically to groups called ghulat ("extremists") by medieval heresiographers
. For example, the Mukhammisa ("Pentadists"), a Shii group that was active in Kufa around the mid-second/eighth century, believed that God had manifested Himself (zahara) throughout history in the different forms (suwar) of various prophets and their heirs, namely, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and--in the age of Islam--the five members of the Prophet's family (ahl al-bayt): Muhammad, Fatima, 'Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn.
(43.) Muslim heresiographers
list the Mu'tazilis as a Muslim sect known by other names like al-Qadariyya and al-'Adaliyya.
The authors of these essays (Thomas Ahnert, John Christian Laursen, Ian Hunter, and Sandra Pott) do an exemplary job of identifying nuances and tensions among those who might be labeled "revisionist heresiographers
She also engages the underlying genre with a chapter on "Gangraena as Heresiography," a much-needed exercise as heresiographers
, like generals, are always (re-)fighting past wars.
have identified over 72 sects, each considering itself as the "saved sect," with the others as misguided.