Long-term follow-up of standard microdiscectomy versus minimal access surgery for lumbar disc herniations
Most lumbar disc herniations
manifest themselves through small / medium pain intensity and low grade of disability, and the severe ones affect only the minority.
3,7) Lateral and posterior lung herniations
are rarely problematic due to the greater support provided by side and back muscles.
, bony hypertrophy, and ligamentous changes can compromise the spinal canal and cause stenosis in predictable locations (Figure 5).
5%) of the herniations
operated were extrusions, 30.
Hybrid surgery combining cervical disc arthroplasty and interbody fusion has been widely used for the treatment of multilevel cervical disc herniations
in recent years.
Therefore, most disc herniations
affect only the posterior side of the intervertebral disc structure, causing spinal cord or nerve root compression.
Judkins was prescribed pain medication and instructed to follow up with an orthopedist, who ultimately diagnosed three disc herniations
Ninety-five percent of all disc herniations
involve the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels, with the L5-S1 being the most commonly affected.
Other less common herniations
include transverse colon, small intestine, and spleen.
Conservative management, including bed rest, oral anti-inflammatory and analgesics, spinal anesthetic blocks, and/or physical therapy, is recommended for treatment of lumbar disc herniations
1) Rarely in adults, lumbar disc herniations
are associated with posterior ring apophyseal fractures (PRAF).