in Eucalyptus globulus (Myricales:Myricaceae) affects ovipositional and settling preferences of Ctenarytaina eucalypti and C.
miR156 are known to target the SPL transcription factors, which are involved in various physiological processes including promotion of juvenile to adult phase change (heteroblasty
), reproductive transition, control of male fertility, and stress responses [27, 28].
No clear-cut differences between heterophylly and heteroblasty are mentioned in most of the literature, and these two processes are described interchangeably (see e.g.
Allsopp (1965) revised the following general traits that might be affected by the occurrence of heteroblasty in cormophytes: (1) changes in leaf morphology (size, shape), vegetative/reproductive phase), anatomy, juvenility, arrested organs, and differential growth; (2) changes in phyllotaxis; (3) changes in stem characteristics; (4) changes in the apical bud; (5) changes in growth habit and in physiological characteristics; and (6) reversion to juvenile forms in adult plants.
Evaluation for morphological characteristics show that these genetic stocks differ in leaf heteroblasty
(leaf length and complexity), leaf blade, leaf shape among the plant axis, degree of branching (branching from basal or higher nodes), plant height and flower reversion.
These developmental changes produce tissues that differ in many important ways, a phenomenon known as heteroblasty
. In addition, changes in resistance to plant parasites are also frequently associated with phase changes.
Progressive changes in leaf size and shape (heteroblasty
) are often associated with the onset of flowering (Williams 1965); thus, nodes 25-40 (beyond the first flowering node) were used in the linear-regression comparisons.
Tsukaya, "The more and smaller cells mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana identify novel roles for squamosa promoter binding protein-like genes in the control of heteroblasty
," Development, vol.
The older literature, mostly dealing with morphological and anatomical, but also physiological aspects of heteroblasty, was reviewed in detailed and extensive earlier reviews, e.g.
However, no comprehensive recent review on heteroblasty is available.
The pattern of leaf shape change along the shoot in sororia reflects a marked and unusual expression of heteroblasty in which both the earliest seedling leaves (1-4) and the later "adult" leaves are lobed.
As originally conceived by Goebel (1900), ontogenetic differences in leaf form along the shoot, as occurs in sororia, are marked expressions of heteroblasty and are associated with "juvenile" and "adult" phases of plant growth.