Despite his heterodoxy
, faults, and weaknesses, Clare was a man with a conscience.
In a culture which generally refused to acknowledge women as theologians, fiction offered Marguerite, King Francis I's sister, who had already in the 1530s been attacked for the perceived heterodoxy
of her poetry, a safer and more effective means of reaching and persuading her audience.
The controversies Gottschalk analyzes will be familiar to anyone who knows the outlines of Eddy's life--litigations; disputes with former students such as Josephine Woodbury and Augusta Stetson; disillusionment with people she had at one time been close to such as her adopted son, Foster Eddy; accusations against her that ranged from hysteria to fraudulence to authoritarianism to heterodoxy
to mushy thinking and bad writing; and, finally, mental incompetence.
It implies that his own circumspection in the Spanish commentary did not betray a fearful uneasiness over its ostensible heterodoxy
but a rather sensible deference to his intended audience.
Their efforts were often met with stiff resistance both from governmental authorities who deemed their translations politically incorrect, and from conservative Pietists and orthodox Lutherans who repudiated their heterodoxy
Thomas Corns sums it up best when he writes: "Milton needs a society thus tolerant of heterodoxy
and heresy in part because his own theology of salvation probably is, in Calvinist terms, a heresy, and he needs an intellectual environment permissive of innovation and deviancy as the prerequisite for the free operation of a mind and sensibility which are already pushing against the limitations imposed by those new forcers of conscience currently coming into their own" (48).
Three others investigate the nature and appeal of communist ideas among Anabaptists, the relationship between literacy and heterodoxy
during the Reformation, and the factors that contributed to the rise of witch accusations.
Among the most successful of his interpretations is that of George Marsh, the Marian martyr, who was educated at Cambridge University in his mature years, became a schoolmaster and pastor, and was burned at the stake for views whose heterodoxy
is far from obvious and for adhering to a Prayer Book to which his persecutors had all conformed in the previous reign.
In his letter to Prenninger, Ficino tells how he burned his "little comments" on Lucretius and some other things; then, in explaining away his possible youthful heterodoxy
Ficino cites Plato: "As Plato says," Ficino writes, "maturer age and a more carefully thought out examination often condemns the things which youthful lightmindedness either rashly believed, or at least - what would be equal - did not know how to disapprove of.
This far-reaching study does nothing less than shift the paradigms with which we think about such fundamental categories as heterodoxy
, orthodoxy, theology, and revelation in relation to fourteenth- and fifteenth-century English religious cultures.
Keeble, "Milton and Puritanism"; John Rumrich, "Radical Heterodoxy
and Heresy"; Diane Kelsey McColley, "Milton and Ecology"; Andrew Hadfield, "The English and Other Peoples"; Joad Raymond, "The Literature of Controversy"; Thomas N.
It is not that priests deliberately opt for heterodoxy