Shell growth rates of pteropod and heteropod
molluscs and aragonite production in the open ocean: implications for the marine carbonate system.
Morphology of the trackways suggests polypod and heteropod
arthropods with different long appendages and a dorsaly/ventraly flattened body.
An initial study of pelagic dive behavior of this species (Polovina et al., 2003) indicates that they regularly dive down to depths of 100 m and may also forage at those depths, which may account for the high frequency of occurrence and high total percent volume of the heteropod
The remaining 5% of the zooplankton community was composed of cladocerans, ostracods, doliolids, polychaete larvae, medusae, fish eggs, ctenophores, salps, cephalopod paralarvae, bivalves, isopods, appendicularians, pyrosomes, mysiids, heteropods and echinoderms larvae, stomatopods and cirripeds.
Other less abundant groups (<1%) such as siphonophores, medusae, cladocerans, heteropods, appendicularians and echinoderm larvae showed a negative correlation (-0.64 < r < -0.28; P < 0.05).
The remaining 5% comprised mollusks (pteropods and heteropods
, 2.6%), larval fishes, decapods, fish eggs, one squid paralarva, and one terrestrial insect (Table 2).
[Investigations on Pteropods and Heteropods
. A Contribution to the Anatomy and Ontogeny of These Animals.
(1996) examined the diet of juvenile Opakapaka from the nursery in Kaneohe Bay and discovered that it was composed of crustaceans (shrimps and stomatopods), gelatinous organisms (salps and heteropods
), nekton (fishes and squids), and benthic organisms (demersal octopods, echinoids, and microgastropods).
These animals include some radiolarmans and foraminifera, as well as medusae, siphonophores, ctenophores, chaetognaths, pteropods, heteropods, appendicularians, salps, doliolids, and pyrosomes (e.g., Hamner et al., 1975).
Krill, squid, and other large or fleshy prey can be cut or homogenized to an appropriate size and fed to many polyps, medusae, and heteropods. A disadvantage is that these food items quickly sink to the bottom of the tank and thus are available for capture only briefly.
For the analysis the prey species were grouped into seven major prey groups: euphausiids; fishes; salps; heteropods
; jellyfishes (species other than salps and heteropods
in the gelatinous zooplankton group); decapods; and miscellaneous prey items.
1, 2), most transparent species are found in the following 10 groups, all of which are pelagic: cubozoans, hydromedusae, non-beroid ctenophores, hyperiid amphipods, tomopterid polychaetes, pterotracheid and carinariid heteropods
, pseudothecosomatous pteropods, cranchiid squid, thaliaceans, and chaetognaths.