One of the most remarkable of these strategies is heterostyly
, which uses insect pollinators (hetero=different; style=female structure).
(2013) determined the heterostyly
in Linum aretioides.
Barrett SCH, Richards JH (1990) Heterostyly
in tropical plants.
Pedicel is 2-3 mm long and articulate; perianth is 3 mm long; 8 nectaries are yellow, alternating with stamens, being heterostyly
; stigma is capitate.
Barrett (ed.), Evolution and function of heterostyly
The evolutionary and adaptive significance of heterostyly
. Trends Ecol.
Reproductive ecology of 21 coexisting Psychotria species (Rubiaceae): when is heterostyly
in Erythroxylum coca (Erythroxylaceae).
In species that exhibit heterostyly
, the flowers come in two forms, "pin" flowers with long styles (the portion of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary) and short stamens and "thrum" flowers with short styles and long stamens (Darwin, 1986).
These mechanisms include protogyny, chasmogamy, heterostyly
, self-incompatibility, self-sterility, entomophily, anemophily, and hydrophily.
Experimental studies on the functional significance of heterostyly
. Evolution 46:43-55.
Evolution and function of heterostyly
. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.