higher criticism


Also found in: Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to higher criticism: lower criticism

high·er criticism

(hī′ər)
n.
Critical study of biblical texts to ascertain their literary origins and history and the meaning and intention of the authors.

higher critic n.

higher criticism

n
(Bible) the use of scientific techniques of literary criticism to establish the sources of the books of the Bible. Compare lower criticism

high′er crit′icism


n.
the study of the Bible having as its object the establishment of such facts as authorship and date of composition, as well as determination of a basis for exegesis.
[1830–40]

Higher Criticism

the analysis of Biblical materials that aims to ascertain, from internal evidence, authorship, date, and intent. Cf. Lower Criticism.
See also: Bible
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.higher criticism - the scientific study of biblical writings to determine their origin and meaning
textual criticism - comparison of a particular text with related materials in order to establish authenticity
References in classic literature ?
I had a dream that was so far removed from the higher criticism that it had to do with the ancient, respectable, and lamented bar-of- judgment theory.
But that changed in a series of cultural tidal waves -- the Darwinist account of human origins, the application of higher criticism to the text of the Bible, the sexual revolution -- which swept away old certainties.
Driver and higher criticism: mapping the differences of race in Genesis, from Ernest Renan to Anders Behring Breivik: continuities in racial stereotypes of Muslims and Jews, anachronistic whiteness and the ethics of interpretation, the Bible in the bush: the first "literate" Batswana Bible readers, and re-examining the master's tools: considerations on biblical studies' race problem.
In the Republic of Letters the distinctive virtue is Philology, and more particularly the branch of philology that in the nineteenth century was known as Lower Criticism in distinction to the Higher Criticism. McGann writes at some length about the classic collision of Lower and Higher Criticism in Wilamowitz's critique of Nietzsches Birth of Tragedy, a precursor in many ways of the mutual disdain of Theory and Empiricism in the contemporary world of the humanities.
Biblical scholar Peter Enns, employing higher criticism in his study of Mosaic Law, concluded that much of it resembles the centuries-older Code of Hammurabi.
He then amasses sources from the Talmud through the medieval Sages who, at least partially, accept certain aspects of both lower criticism (textual emendation) and higher criticism (authorship).
The year 2011 brings an exciting range of high-quality work on Browning, including an accomplished literary study by Britta Martens covering Browning's full career, an important book chapter by Charles LaPorte on Browning and the higher criticism, and a number of substantial articles.
Olson uncovered and explored the roots and patterns of the scientism that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe, particularly in the aspirations to scientific credibility evident in Saint-Simon socialism, positivism, and even biblical higher criticism. In The Unraveling of Scientism: American Philosophy at the End of the Twentieth Century (2003), Joseph Margolis continues and attempts to complete this narrative by sounding the death knell for analytic philosophy, of which scientism is a prime example, in the work of W.
Higher criticism also had a profound influence on the way these church historians interpreted the past.
God is viewed by theologians by "higher criticism." Holy books are viewed in terms of information, revelation, and metaphor.
Their topics include the lower criticism and higher criticism case for 1 Esdras, the second year of Darius, ancient composition patterns mirrored in 1 Esdras and the priority of the canonical composition type, Hellenistic Greek elements in 1 Esdras, and the rendering of 2 Chronicles 35-36 in 1 Edras.
For the Anabaptists, the congregation was crucial to interpretation, and Paul Blowers shows how modem Orthodox biblical scholars draw upon patristic exegesis and higher criticism for a "multilevel hermeneutic" for and in the church (194, 195).