forests), the prevalence of hippoboscid
flies (Ornithomya anchineuria and I.
Haemoproteus turlerine ceratopogonid ve hippoboscid
sinekler vektorluk yapmaktadir (10, 11).
(dipteran) fly like Pseudolinchia canariensis is incriminated vectors of Haemoproteus species in pigeons (Benette and Pierce, 1990).
flies of the genus Ornithomyia and biting midges of the genus Culicoides are the intermediate hosts of Hemoproteus.
The earliest record of a hippoboscid
fly acting as vector of an avian Haemoproteus parasite was by Aragao (1908; see also Adie, 1915) and, more recently, other bird pathogens transmitted by hippoboscid
flies have been detected (e.g., Haemoproteus multipigmentatus, Valkiunas et al., 2010; Santiago-Alarcon et al., 2012).
They are also transmitted by Ticks but the Culicoides are major transmitter of Haemoproteus .The incidence of infection increases with the hippoboscid
flies remained constant in the tropical and subtropical areas indicating high rates of transmission and prevalence throughout the year [21,22].
The documented external parasites of raptors include lice, feather mites, ticks, fleas, hippoboscid
flies and fly larvae (Sohn & Noh 1994, Morishita et al.
Odocoileus virginianus from the peninsula served as host to a variety of ectoparasites including the hippoboscid
fly Lipoptena mazamae and the ixodid ticks Amblyomma cajennense (adult female), two species of Amblyomma sp.
Smith for critically reading the manuscript; Nixon Wilson for assistance with species identification of hippoboscid
flies; and Rob Lanciotti for providing monoclonal anti-flavivirus antibody 4G2