The patterns of early cleavage can be holoblastic
or incomplete (Weygoldt, 1961: Anderson, 1973; Scholtz and Wolff, 2013; Wolff and Gerberding, 2015).
It is distinguished by a thick-walled and branched conidiogenous system, and holoblastic
, flabelliform to palmate, and distoseptate conidia (Hawksworth and Poelt, 1986, 1990; Sutton and Muhr, 1986; Tonsberg, 2002).
Most of the chapters focus on types of molds: those with arthrospores, with aleuriospores, with holoblastic
conidia, with enteroblastic conidia, mucoraceous molds, and miscellaneous molds.
The genus Candida is characterized by globose, ellipsoidal, cylindroidal or elongate cells with holoblastic
budding reproduction and the ability of form pseudohyphae (4).
It is known that mollusks show holoblastic
cleavage is practiced in each of the approximately 31 phyla.
The first cleavage is holoblastic
and equal, and begins two h after fertilization.
The eggs of molluscs are small (about 50 [micro]m, according to Mackie, 1984), with little calf, allowing a total cleavage, type holoblastic
Cleavage is spiral, equal, and holoblastic
, as is typical of nemerteans.
Opisthobranch embryology involves spiral, typically holoblastic
, cleavage, which is highly conserved within annelids, molluscs, and nemerteans (Wilson, 1892; Casteel, 1904; Thompson, 1958; Maslakova et al., 2004a, b; Nielson, 2004).