Polyol metabolism in homopterans
at high temperatures: accumulation of mannitol in aphids (Aphididae: Homoptera) and sorbitol in whiteflies (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera).
Lizards from Jalisco, fed mainly on homopterans
, coleopterans, hymenopteran, orthopterans and isopterans (Medica & Arndt, 1976).
2013) and their adult diet consists primarily of lepidopteran larvae and homopterans
(Sample et al.
(2005) for references and additional examples), and there are also ant species that herd, protect, and breed mutualistic aphids and other homopterans
(Holldolber & Wilson, 1990; Schultz & McGlynn, 2000).
The presence and availability of different metabolite groups in EFNs may serve as attractive and nutritional supplements for different insects, such as hymenopterans (ants and others) and homopterans
, a well-discussed fact in the literature (NOGUEIRA et al., 2012).
Other supplemental methods, including the use of entomotoxic proteins were introduced in crop protection; due to resistance of some insect pests to repeated Bt toxin applications and none affected Homopterans
pests by Bt toxins [13, 14, 15, 16, 17].
2009), Curculionidae (Reding & Ranger 2011), and Scarabaeidae (Koppenhofer & Fuzy 2008)]; Homopterans
[Delphacidae (Wang et al.
marmorata consumed isopterans most often (65 and 78%, respectively), followed by homopterans
(33 and 22%), coleopterans (30 and 56%), orthopterans (27 and 33%), and arachnids (20 and 44%).
These included crab spiders, hemipterans, homopterans
, and ladybird beetles.
5- Trophobionts: includes arthropods (such as homopterans
) that provide the ants with food in the form of honeydew or other nutritive secretions and in return are protected and transported by the ants.
The biology of the larval stages is quite variable, but most species of the subfamily Syrphinae are predators of homopterans
(Hemiptera) and other small, soft-bodied arthropods that feed on plants, especially those that live in aggregations (Rotheray 1993, Rotheray & Gilbert 1999).
Not all ladybirds are brightly coloured and not all of them feed on homopterans
. Some feed on spider mites and others on mildews and moulds and some, amongst the larger species of the family, are plant feeders and may be important agricultural pests themselves.