As mentioned, the zombie stories find its origins in Haitian popular culture in which a sorcerer, a bokor or houngan
, summons the dead out of their graves forcing them into slave labor.
In another example, the Houngan
, a priest-like individual who attempts to conduct the dialogue between the living and the dead, is described as "a short, black man, narrow around the waist, almost fragile in the spareness of his arms" (31).
, or Vodou spiritual leader, Meus isn't talking soccer over dominoes with the men on his block.
This goes double at Vodou ceremonies, where you should always check with the houngan
or mambo (respectively male or female Vodou priest) before you start clicking away.
He understands Charlie Parker in the cosmic sense--as stated by Ishmael Reed in his novel Mumbo Jumbo (1972)--"the houngan
Sometimes, the houngan
can ritually separate the ti bon ange from the flesh and sent it to live in the so-called "dark waters" for a year and a day; then the family can ritually raise the soul--now called esprit (i.
In order to open a portal into the past, Genna borrows from the library a book of hoodoo spells before seeking the help of her Haitian friend, whose uncle is a houngan
, a Vodou priest.
Many had a houngan
, or "voodoo physician," of one chickenscratch school or another.
Thereafter, the houngan
, or voodoo priests, were often referred to as 'makandals'; to possess certain powers or simply to practice voodoo was to be a 'makandal' ...
Some women from each group said they would eventually consult a Voodoo priest (houngan
) or clergy for spiritual care during an illness, especially if Western medicine did not yield the desired outcome quickly.
The author instead cites the speech delivered by the Vodun houngan
Boukman in August 1791--or, to be more specific, James's translation of it (37n42).
themselves welcomed and valorized in Vodou temples by lwa and houngan