Data were grouped into the following major benthic categories: massive coral, branched coral, encrusting coral, dead coral, octocoral, hydrocoral
, macroalgae, algal turf, sponge, calcareous material, and sand.
Maio and coworkers (13) had tried to produce foamed sheets from a chain extended industrial scraps of PET using PMDA and hydrocoral
CT 534 as chain extenders with a two-step process (a chain extension and a foaming process).
We observed 11 scleractinian, two hydrocoral
(Millepora alcicornis y M.
The planula of the stylasterine hydrocoral
Allopora petrograpta Fisher: its structure, metamorphosis and development of the primary cyclosystem.
Larval dispersal in the subtidal hydrocoral
Allopora californica Verrill (1866).
Five scleractinian coral species and one hydrocoral
were found on the studied reef sites.
Discontinuous distribution of the tropical West Atlantic Hydrocoral
Pigments associated with some hydrocoral
and scleractinian coral skeletons have been identified as carotenoprotein complexes (Fox and Wilkie, 1970; Fox, 1972; Ronneberg et al., 1979).
lamarcki, and the hydrocoral
Millepora sp.) are the same species that are the first to react during natural bleaching events (e.g., Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1988), lending support to the notion that the differential bleaching of zooxanthellate cnidarians exposed to moderately high temperatures in nature reflects the tolerances of their particular zooxanthellae.
Witman, "Effects of predation by the fireworm Hermodice carunculata on milleporid hydrocorals
," Bulletin of Marine Science, vol.
The Tuxpan Reefs are approximately 644 km south of the Flower Garden Banks and are composed primarily of stony corals; 31 species of scleractinia coral and two hydrocorals
(Universidad Veracruzana 1996; 2003; Tunnell 2007).
Deep-sea corals, such as gorgonians (sea fans), antipaththarians (black corals), scleractinians (stony corals), and hydrocorals
, are of particular interest because they are often long-lived and slow-growing (Andrews et al., 2002; Heifetz, 2002), poorly studied (Etnoyer and Morgan (1)), and in certain situations vulnerable to human activities (e.g., mobile fishing gear) (Watling and Norse 1998; Freese et al., 1999; Krieger, 2001; Dayton et al., 2002; Fossa et al., 2002; NRC, 2002;).