radar reflectivity--a measure of the total hydrometeor
backscattering cross section per unit volume).
Meteorologists, both operational and forensic, often use hydrometeor
classification algorithms (techno-speak for algorithms that offer a best-guess as to the type of precipitation occupying a given section of sky) as a first step in identifying likely regions of hail production, although we take the algorithm output with a healthy grain (or two) of salt when conditions warrant.
Modeling the recent evolution of global drought and projections for the twenty-first century with the Hadley centre climate model, Journal of Hydrometeor
, 7: 1113-1125
Winker, 2009: A description of hydrometeor
layer occurrence statistics derived from the first year of merged CloudSat and CALIPSO data.
The first moment about zero, mean Doppler shift,  is related to the radial motion of particles in the sample volume, and the first moment about the spectrum mean, Doppler frequency dispersion, is a measure of hydrometeor
radial velocity dispersion.
Zrnic, 2005: The Joint Polarization Experiment: Polarimetric rainfall measurements and hydrometeor
Four state-of-the-art scanning dualpolarization Doppler radars, operating at several frequencies, observed the vertical and horizontal variability of hydrometeor
characteristics and air motions within passing storms.
Writing for scientists, practicing engineers, or designers concerned with the operation and service of radio links, Blaunstein and Christodoulou examine different situations in the over-the-terrain, atmospheric, and ionospheric communication channels, including rural, mixed residential, and built-up environments for terrestrial links, atmospheric turbulence, and different kinds of hydrometeors
His topics are radio waves and the troposphere, propagation, reflection and interference, refraction and path delay, absorption, rain attenuation, and attenuation by hydrometeors
other than rain.
particles through their incorporation into hydrometeors
, which are then
The free space losses, the excess losses due to the atmospheric gases, oxygen molecules, salt, and hydrometeors
(rain, snowflakes, fog, and clouds, etc) consist make the losses of the propagating electromagnetic wave ("excess" in this context means in excess of free--space loss) .
Following a historical overview of radiative transfer and microwave radiometry, the book covers atmospheric, terrestrial, and technical factors affecting the use of thermal microwave radiation in remote sensing applications, with chapters on the absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric gases, the interaction of solid and liquid hydrometeors
with microwave radiation, radiative-transfer modeling of the microwave surface emission, and dielectric properties of important materials found at the terrestrial surface.