This can be difficult, since significant differences exist between how a climate model represents clouds and what instruments observe, both in terms of spatial scale and the properties of the hydrometeors
that are either modeled or observed.
Writing for scientists, practicing engineers, or designers concerned with the operation and service of radio links, Blaunstein and Christodoulou examine different situations in the over-the-terrain, atmospheric, and ionospheric communication channels, including rural, mixed residential, and built-up environments for terrestrial links, atmospheric turbulence, and different kinds of hydrometeors
His topics are radio waves and the troposphere, propagation, reflection and interference, refraction and path delay, absorption, rain attenuation, and attenuation by hydrometeors
other than rain.
particles through their incorporation into hydrometeors
, which are then
The free space losses, the excess losses due to the atmospheric gases, oxygen molecules, salt, and hydrometeors
(rain, snowflakes, fog, and clouds, etc) consist make the losses of the propagating electromagnetic wave ("excess" in this context means in excess of free--space loss) .
Following a historical overview of radiative transfer and microwave radiometry, the book covers atmospheric, terrestrial, and technical factors affecting the use of thermal microwave radiation in remote sensing applications, with chapters on the absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric gases, the interaction of solid and liquid hydrometeors
with microwave radiation, radiative-transfer modeling of the microwave surface emission, and dielectric properties of important materials found at the terrestrial surface.
Inclusion of Ice Phase of Hydrometeors
in Cloud Parameterization for Mesoscale and Largescale Models.
1) Advances in weather radar include the incorporation of Doppler capability, which allows measurement of wind velocity, and the use of multiple polarizations, which enhance rainfall estimation and provide the ability to discriminate between types of hydrometeors
, such as hail versus rain.
The onset and termination of any type of hydrometeors
(including precipitation) in the air are detected by sensing interruptions in its infrared optical beam.
only two general aerosol species are allowed, specifically the nonhygroscopic ice-nucleating aerosols, which are dust particles, and the hygroscopic aerosols including sea salts, organic matter, and sulfates) that accounts for changes in the size of cloud hydrometeors
to represent these aerosol indirect effects (Thompson and Eidhammer 2014) with a moderate increase in computational cost (-16%).
Nine papers from workshops held during 2005 report on the African regional center for space science education, planning for the international heliophysical year 2007, participation in the Libyan solar physics and solar eclipse symposium, the effects of atmospheric gases and hydrometeors
on radio waves, and future medical care service on airplanes.
NEXRAD network was upgraded to in 2013) provide more accurate estimates of rainfall because of their ability to differentiate between different types of hydrometeors
(Ryzhkov et al.