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A hydrated hydrogen ion, H3O+. Also called hydronium ion.

References in periodicals archive ?
During depolymerization, hydronium ions from the catalyst enabled the cleavage of longer-chain cellooligomers to produce cello-oligiomers of shorter chain length while cello-oligomers of low DPw formed water-soluble oligomers.
Goldberg, "Bis(nateglinide) hydronium chloride, and its unique self-assembly into extended polymeric arrays via O-H...O, N-H...Cl and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds," Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications, vol.
If the duration of each hydronium ion is [10.sup.-12] s [31], then approximately 1600 s would elapse before potentially the vast majority of protons would be affected.
Moreover, measurements in the three-electrode configuration permit separating the specific capacitance associated with the hydronium cations from that of the bisulfate anions.
The main chemical reaction on the anode is water oxidation that leads to formation of the hydronium ions and oxygen:
Hydronium ions, however, do not need to move from one side to the other to change the pH conditions.
High-resolution crystallographic studies of fungal Aqy1, together with experimental studies of mammalian AQP1 and molecular dynamics simulations, have suggested that a synergistic effect between the NPA motifs and the ar/R selectivity filter breaks the connectivity of permeating water molecules to prevent proton transport via a Grotthuss mechanism, in which excess protons could shuttle through the hydrogen bond network of water, hydroxyl, and hydronium molecules (de Grotthuss, 1806; Wu etal., 2009; Li etal., 2011; Kosinska Eriksson et al., 2013).
At the same time, oxygen gas and hydronium ions are formed in the anodic chamber.
According to reaction (5), the acetic acid reacts with water and produces hydronium ion, which accelerates dissolution of chitosan through its protonation [reaction (2)].
In addition, these hydrogels can be sensitive to organic solvents, hydronium, and hydroxide ions or selected metal ions such as copper, nickel, cobalt, or palladium ions.
At highly acidic conditions, Cd and Pb removal showed a lower metal uptake; this behavior could be attributed to competition for metal binding sites between metal ions and hydrogen ([H.sup.+]) and hydronium ([H.sub.3][O.sup.+]) ions because it has been established that the hydrogen ion is a strong competing adsorbate [31, 32].
At pH values that are too low it is expected that hydronium ions, [H.sub.3][O.sup.+], would associate with the adsorbent surface sites thus restricting access to the surface sites by the metal ions through repulsive forces.