testosterone 15-alphahydroxylase); homologs are Cyp2a4 (mouse) and CYP2A6, CYP2A7, and CYP2A13 (human); e) rat Cyp2c11 is a male-specific steroid (testosterone) alpha-hydroxylase homologous to CYP2C9 (human), which converts testosterone to 2-alpha-hydroxyl and 16-alpha-hydroxyl metabolites; f) rat Cyp2c12 is a female-predominant liver P450 that is active in the 15-beta-hydroxylation of steroid sulfates (prominent in rat preovulatory ovarian follicles), but no information is available on a human homolog; and g) Cyp3a2 is another male-specific steroid (testosterone) alpha-hydroxylase in rats, and in humans the CYP3A cluster consists of four genes (CYP3A43, CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP3A5); these enzymes hydroxylate
testosterone to less active metabolites.
Under normoxia, specific prolyl hydroxylase domain containing enzymes (PHD 1, 2, and 3) use molecular oxygen to immediately hydroxylate
distinct prolyl residues of newly synthesized HIF-[alpha]-subunits.
The processes are mainly performed by microbes that hydroxylate
phenols at the second carbon position .
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a cascade of cytochrome P450 enzymes that oxidize, hydroxylate
, and rearrange the cholesterol backbone into specific steroids with unique biological activities.
Also, ascorbic acid is found to affect the activity of prolyl hydroxylases, rough endoplasmic reticulum enzymes that hydroxylate
proline residues in nascent procollagen chains and allow folding of the chains into stable triple helix .
Hanauske-Abel explains that ciclopirox and deferiprone both inhibit a cellular protein called deoxyhypusine hydroxylate
(DOHH) in CD4 positive cells, which slows their replication.
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins hydroxylate
the 5-methylcytosine during the demethylation process synthesizing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC).
Further evidence that vitamin D anagoges have anticancer effects, was reported in (International Journal of Cancer 122, 2699-2706 (2008)) This study found that non-kidney cells can also hydroxylate
25(OH)D, implying that higher 25(OH) D levels could protect against cancer in local sites.
Animals and humans, and their excised tissues, are known to hydroxylate
DHEA at several positions and to interconvert 7 alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, 7 beta-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-oxo-DHEA, and the corresponding derivatives of androst-5-enediol.
surfaces of these oxides in aqueous medium undergo dissociation resulting in increased number of sites for the adsorption of COD.
Fluvoxamine but not citalopram increases serum melatonin in healthy subjects--an indication that cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 hydroxylate
8) The CYP3A43 enzyme is inactive, but splicing of CYP3A43 exon 1 to CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 exons produces hybrid mRNA products, of which the longest CYP3A43/CYP3A4 chimeric isoform can hydroxylate