Different indications of enteral feeding treatments include gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, neurological disorders, diabetes, and hypermetabolism
. Different types of cancer that require enteral feeding treatments include gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, head & neck cancer, esophageal cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
Before widespread acceptance and application of an early excision, recent improvements regarding the better understanding of the burn hypermetabolism
, and better critical patient care, the energy expenditure of patients with burns was accepted as 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than the one calculated for the nonburn controls.
in the thalamus of patients with drug-induced blepharospasm.
It has been noted that there is a coexistence of hyperkinetic circulation, hypermetabolism
, and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system in both cirrhosis and hyperthyroidism.
Energy deficits, resulting from hypermetabolism
and malnutrition of ALS, could give rise to muscle-initiated NMJs dysfunction.
These lesions do not tend to calcify or demonstrate necrotic change, and will demonstrate mild hypermetabolism
on FDG PET.
Clinical research has repeatedly demonstrated that SCD and the thalassemia syndromes (particularly SCA, [beta]-thalassemia major, [beta]-thalassemia intermedia, and/or HBH disease) induce states of chronic hypermetabolism
(Badaloo et al.
The rate of development of post-operative malnutrition depends upon pre-existing nutritional status, nature and complexity of surgical procedure and degree of hypermetabolism
. Hence, a previously malnourished patient is more expected to have post-operative complications.
This indicates a suboptimal response to acid suppressive therapy due to hypermetabolism
, suboptimal dosing, or noncompliance.
, upper extremity weakness, and dysphagia collectively make ALS patients prone to weight loss, which may occur in 56% of ALS patients [64, 65].
AG exhibited hypermetabolism
in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral and midline nucleus group of the dorsal thalamus, mammillary, supraoptic, and tuberal regions of the hypothalamus, cerebral peduncle, midbrain tegmentum, and pontine tegmentum after 4 weeks (Table 3 and Figure 3(b)).