They discuss the practice of repetition for aesthetic reasons, including musical stuttering, the concept of repetition as production, and repetitive audio technologies; how loops, drums, riffs, and other repeated sounds affect perception in terms of musical meaning in dance and pop music; and the use of repetition as a structuring device, particularly the AABA structure of the Tin Pan Alley ballad form, regular and irregular repetition in jazz harmony and hypermeter
, and a psychological perspective on repetition in popular music in terms of attention, aesthetics, and expectation.
In all the previous editions, the work starts with a measure that Bruckner added at the very beginning of the opening movement--before the original measure one!--as part of the regularization of hypermeter
that he undertook during his 1876-77 revision of the work.
These measures don't conform to the hypermeter
established in the rest of the movement--they seem bizarre and out of place.
Less repetition of the findings in Howat's meticulous Debussy in Proportion (which identifies and discusses the implications of the Golden Section) might have focused the chapter more effectively, creating space to develop the analytical evidence linking Poe's versification with Debussy's use of hypermeter
, as Howat posits.
All in all, the five analytical studies collectively cover a wide range of parameters: hypermeter
(Harald Krebs, William Benjamin), tonal hierarchy (Smith), form (Brown), and key.
Ford, for his part, defines his method as Schenkerian and influenced by Lerdahl and Jackendoff's work on hypermeter
* moments in the music that constitute intermediate stages between chorus structure (which preserves harmonic structure and three metric levels of hypermeter
, meter, and pulse) and the abandonment.
Malin offers succinct explanations of these theories (including those of periodicity, hypermeter
, metric perception and entrainment, phrase rhythm, shadow meter, and metric conflict), taking care to apply these concepts to short examples within the lied genre in preparation for the more extended analyses of part 2.
He discovers hypermeter
as the favored context in Brahms's scherzos for the creation of structural tension as well as a primary form-defining element.
Minturn's analyses cover mainly pitch organization, form, phrase structure, and hypermeter
, of which the first is clearly his main interest.
The term designates more or less what most would call early Classical or galant hierarchical phrase structure, with its characteristic slowing of harmonic rhythm, simplification in texture and chord vocabulary, regular hypermeter
, and frequent use of exact or varied repetition of short traits.
are applicable for LDA, Link-LDA, and AM.