Rising number of ophthalmic disorders including presbyopia, hypermetropia
and myopia among aging population provides a significant boost to the market.
Out of children with ametropia, 20 (35.7%) had myopia, 24 (42.8%) had astigmatism and 12 (21.5%) had hypermetropia
. The comparison of groups (ametropia/no ametropia) with respect to age, gender and duration of headache is given in Table-I.
eye defect, (2) myopic eye is corrected using., (3) long sightedness is also called., (4) in hypermetropia
anteroposterior diameter of the eyeball., (5) the condition in which two eyes have unequal refractive error is called., (6) cylindrical lens used to correct which type of refractive error., (7) in protanopia which color cannot be appreciated., (8) out of the following which test is not used for color blindness, (9) central scotoma occurs in which condition of color blindness, and (10) condition of dichromatism in which there is defect in the receptor of third primary color is called.
There have been three previous reports of increased IOP in patients with known glaucoma who began taking venlafaxine., Besides, increased IOP in two patients with hypermetropia
caused by venlafaxine was reported in Sydney on 2002 and 2005, respectively., The patient had no associated family history of glaucoma, but we found that she had shallower anterior chambers (anterior chamber depth = corneal thickness and peripheral chamber depth = 1/5 corneal thickness) which predisposed to angle-closure glaucoma.
At the same time, persons with diabetes are equally prone to disorders of VA that occur in the general population, such as myopia, hypermetropia
and presbyopia.3,4 Most eye disorders worsen with poor glycaemic control as well.5 An optometric or VA assessment, therefore, becomes an essential part of an ophthalmologic examination in a person with diabetes.6 Best practices and guidelines regarding optometric examination are available in published literature.7,8
Patients with corneal pathology, retinal pathology, glaucoma, uveitis, a high degree of hypermetropia
, a high degree of myopia (axial length below 21 mm and above 26 mm), and systemic diseases were excluded from the study.
Values between +0.50 D and -0.50 D were defined as emmetropia, values below -0.50 D as myopia, and values above +0.50 D as hypermetropia
. Axial length was measured with an ultrasonic biometry (NIDEK US-4000 Echoscan, Japan) device; values of 23 mm and below were assessed as short, values between 23 and 24 mm as normal, and values of 24 mm and above as long.
 reported regression of 0.47 D between 3 and 36 months' post LASIK treatment for hypermetropia
. de Ortueta and Arba Mosquera  reported a regression of 0.006 D/month between 3 and 12 months postoperatively.
Among the most common refractive errors are myopia, hypermetropia
also starts in childhood when one needs spectacles for reading.
Patient was uncooperative for visual acuity, and both eye retinoscopy showing +0.50 hypermetropia
. Both eye fundus examination showing hyperemic disc with blurring of disc margins and mild attenuated blood vessels suggestive of papilloedema (Figure 2).
Myopia was the most common refractive error with 64 (16%) patients followed by hypermetropia
(10.5%) and astigmatism (4.5%).