The efficiency of glucose and other fuel secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion correlated with their capacity to hyperpolarize
the mitochondrial potential [88,89].
After RF ablation, the cell membrane is damaged and is unable to maintain the resting potential, which is the ability to hyperpolarize
the cell membrane compared to the extracellular space.
This influx of calcium appears necessary to stimulate the development of the mature form of the chloride ion transporter KCC2 (neuronal potassium-chloride symporter) that allows the neurons to hyperpolarize
to their adult resting potential.
GABA functions to hyperpolarize
synaptic membranes, rendering them less likely to conduct electrochemical stress impulses, thus serving to make the body less responsive to stress cues.
Most agents that activate release of NO from the endothelium also hyperpolarize
both endothelial and smooth muscle cells (35).
and activate directly the ATP sensitive K+ channels to hyperpolarize
the capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferent neurons and decrease release of neurotransmitters, in turn produce the central and peripheral antinociceptive activity.
When activated, these receptors hyperpolarize
the membrane potential and/or fix the membrane potential at voltages below the action potential threshold.
The PIA sends projections to NGC (74), NMC (71,75) and NPM (76) of the medullary region, which in turn project to the spinal cord (72,75,77) to hyperpolarize
motoneurons to control the spinal circuits for inducing atonia during REM sleep (78,79).
Another vasodilator action of the endothelium is mediated by the release of substances-including nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and eicosatrienoic acid-that hyperpolarize
smooth muscle by activating calcium-dependent potassium channels and are collectively referred to as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (22).
The two retinas differ morphologically and physiologically: the ciliary photoreceptors of the distal retina hyperpolarize
in response to light, whereas the rhabdomeric photoreceptors of the proximal retina depolarize in response to light (Hartline, 1938; Wald and Seldin, 1968; McReynolds and Gorman, 1970; Gomez and Nasi, 1994).
A similar interaction with sarcolemma potassium channels could hyperpolarize
cardiomyocytes and decrease cardiac excitability.
Ca] channels would hyperpolarize
MASMCs, thereby closing VDCCs, reducing intracellular [Ca.