In vertebrates, closure of cation-permeable CNG channels hyperpolarizes
rods and cones in response to light, whereas in scallops, the opening of CNG [K.sup.+] channels underlies the hyperpolarizing response.
Increased chloride entry into brain cells hyperpolarizes
the membrane and thereby inhibits neural transmission.
(11) With activation of the GABA receptor, potentiation of the transmembrane chloride conduction hyperpolarizes
the postsynaptic cell membrane resulting in functional inhibition of neurons.
To test whether the stimulatory effect of 9-phenanthrol on insulin secretion at low glucose was due to depolarization of the [beta]-cells, we used diazoxide, which hyperpolarizes
[beta]-cells by activating the KATP channel, and found that diazoxide did not inhibit this effect of 9-phenanthrol.
Most research has shown that acidosis induces relaxation mediated by nitric oxide (NO/ cGMP-dependent) and prostacyclin (PGI2/cAMP-dependent) and hyperpolarizes
the cell membrane (3,4).
Brayden, "Nitric oxide hyperpolarizes
rabbit mesenteric arteries via ATP-sensitive potassium channels," The Journal of Physiology, vol.
Tizanidine is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that hyperpolarizes
moto neurons and decreases the release of excitatory amino acids and its side effects include nausea, vomiting, hypotension, sedation, and hepatotoxicity.
(19) Electrophysiological studies have shown that GABAB receptors in the VTA hyperpolarizes
For example, the chloride pump halorhodopsin (NpHR) hyperpolarizes
neurons in response to yellow light (590 nm wavelength), in contrast to ChR, which depolarizes expressing cells under illumination with blue light (Figure 1).
This action hyperpolarizes
the neurons and muscle fibers, leading to flaccid paralysis and insect death (Cully et al., 1996; Bloomquist, 2003; Wolstenholm and Rogers, 2005).
the skeletal muscle cells impairing their ability to develop the depolarization, which is necessary for muscle contraction.