The cones contact both depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) and hyperpolarizing
bipolar cells (HBCs) through sign-inverting (−) synapses (ON synapse) and sign-preserving (+) synapses (OFF synapse), respectively.
On the other hand, the activation and inactivation V 1/2 values of the two channels had a reduction towards a hyperpolarizing
shift caused by CGA under PGE2 pretreatment.
However, the experiments performed to elucidate whether the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing
factor EDHF could play a role in the vasorelaxant effect to clobenzorex, as previously reported for acetyl-choline (32,33), are discussed below.
Furthermore, Leutscher-Hazelhoff (1984) recorded hyperpolarizing
photic responses from the radiolar photoreceptors of A.
To investigate the mechanisms involved in CGA-induced relaxation, the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxy-genase (COX) and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing
factor (EDHF) was assessed in endothelium-intact aortic rings preincubated with the NOS inhibitor, N[omega]-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, [10.
ATP]) on the [beta]-cell membrane and inhibit a hyperpolarizing
efflux of [K.
The relaxing effect of Thyme on corpus cavernosal tissue could be mediated by multiple action mechanisms including increasing the release of nitric oxide from corporal sinusoids, increasing the intracellular calcium sequestration that hyperpolarizing
As a possible mechanism, the authors proposed that high level of depolarization of neurons during the full-blown seizures activated the hyperpolarizing
potassium currents, which suppressed the depolarizing influence of ionic currents.
13, 14) It decreases the concentration of angiotensin II and hence endothelin, increases the concentration of bradykinin, which is a vasodilator and stimulator of NO, endothelial derived hyperpolarizing
factor and prostacyclin, and decreases superoxide anion concentration.
Intrathecal alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists act by depressing the release of C-fiber transmitters and by hyperpolarizing
postsynaptic dorsal horn neurons.
Hydrogen peroxide is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing
factor in mice.
For instance, FHM1 mutations in Cacna1a exhibit greater hyperpolarizing
shifts in voltage-dependence when expressed in the short ([Ca.