Asthma is the most common chronic illness in childhood and is characterized by variable airflow obstruction with airway hyperresponsiveness
. In the United States, asthma affects an estimated 14-15 million persons, including 4.8 million (6.9%) aged <18 years (1).
IL-35 secreted by inducible costimulator-positive Tregs has been found to suppress Th17 activity and thereby reduce the degree of neutrophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness
(AHR) found in the airways of mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) .
(13) In a murine model of asthma, long-term administration of beta-blockers resulted in a decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness
, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect.
Asthma is usually characterized by chronic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness
(AHR), and reversible expiratory flow limitation.
In fact, NO inhibition lacks clinical benefits in humans, and NO inhalation has been reported to prevent, not to induce, bronchial hyperresponsiveness
The delayed responses to ozone include induction of asthma-like phenotypes with compromises in epithelial barrier function and development of airway hyperresponsiveness
(AHR) (Que et al.
to estrogens is a potential mechanism to explain the increased incidence of estrogen-related disorders seen after exposure to endocrine disrupters like BPA," Taylor said.
But the ACT doesn't take airway inflammation into account, and spirometry measures only airway hyperresponsiveness
, he said.
However, the increased emphasis on asthma as a disease of inflammation leading to bronchial hyperresponsiveness
has shifted the use of inhaled aerosol steroids from second-line or third-line therapy to first-line, primary therapy.
In these individuals an exercise challenge or a surrogate challenge should be done to evaluate bronchial hyperresponsiveness
. The exercise challenge may have to be performed in the environment that usually causes the EIA-type symptoms.
They improve quality of life, they improve baseline lung function, reduce airway hyperresponsiveness
, reduce morbidity and mortality.
* BACKGROUND In patients with chronic asthma, inflammation caused by numerous stimuli leads to recurrent symptoms, variable airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness
. Effective long-term control of persistent asthma requires daily administration of an anti-inflammatory agent, preferably an inhaled corticosteroid.