Patients showing symptoms, such as anemia, hyperviscosity
, cold-agglutinin disease, amyloidosis, peripheral neuropathy, etc., are considered for the treatment.
Interestingly, some SEMG1 variations (Such as p.Tyr315His and p.Gly400Asp) are most likely affecting molecular interactions or protein activity and possibly leading to hyperviscosity
and AZS (47).
(12,13,14) Elevated levels of these blood and plasma components may increase the risk of thrombosis caused by hyperviscosity
. Nicotine prompts vasoconstriction by stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors, while the carbon monoxide found in cigarettes binds to hemoglobin, thus decreasing its oxygen transport capacity.
Smoking induced blood hyperviscosity
is seen over long duration of smoking.
The first is that the hyperglycaemia disrupts the blood-brain barrier, causing a decrease in cerebral blood flow, and the second is that hyperviscosity
causes hypoperfusion of the striatum.
The most common initial symptoms included bone pain (63.2%), blood hyperviscosity
(32.3%), and EMPs (31.7%).
Many factors have been implicated in the failure of the clearance mechanism including ciliary dysfunction, mucosal oedema, hyperviscosity
of the effusion and possibly an unfavourable pressure gradient.
(22) Concomitant hyperviscosity
and ischemia also likely play a role.
However, the topic is controversial because TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer by worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity
, erythrocytosis, severe heart failure, and cardiovascular disease, and exacerbates untreated sleep apnea, as previously reviewed (7-9).
Though recent histological reports support T1 shortening due to increased cytoplasmic protein content within reactive gemistocytic astrocytes, likely precipitated by hyperosmolar injury and potential microcirculatory hyperviscosity
, other cofactors would likely underlie the density changes on CT.
However, if a patient describes symptoms consistent with hyperviscosity
as a cause, such as fatigue, headache, blurred vision, transient loss of vision, paresthesias, or mental status changes, admission for performing limited phlebotomy should be considered.