The effect of deliberate hypercapnia and hypocapnia
on intraoperative blood loss and quality of surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
In children it is important to prevent perioperative crying, as it causes hyperventilation leading to hypocapnia
with possible risk of cerebral vasoconstriction, decreased cerebral blood flow and cerebral ischaemia.
Hypercapnia can cause cerebral vasodilation while hypocapnia
causes constriction that can be marked.
Along with respiratory care for the ventilated neonate, ventilation monitoring is of great importance for a good oxygenation avoiding hypercapnia and hypocapnia
, both associated with deleterious effects not only on preterm but also on term brain.
Some of the suggested risk factors for the development of CE in DKA are young age, severe acidosis, hypocapnia
, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), dehydration, aggressive fluid resuscitation, sodium bicarbonate, and bolus/early insulin administration [15-17].
This study had several limitations: first, we did not perform a measurement of end-tidal CO2 because of limited resources and we did not assess CVMR in hypocapnia
Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia
in Labrador retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.
of hypoxia, hypocapnia
and low oxygen saturation (pH 7.45; partial
The arterial blood gas (hypoxia Pa[O.sub.2] <60 mmHg, hypocapnia
PaC[O.sub.2] <30 mmHg, hypercapnia PaC[O.sub.2] >45 mmHg), blood glucose (hypoglycemia <50 mg/dL, hyperglycemia >180 mg/dL), hypernatremia-hyponatremia (Na 136-145 meq/L), hypokalemia-hyperkalemia (K 3.3-5.1 meq/L), hypomagnesemia (1.6-2.40 mg/dL), hypocalcemia-hypercalcemia (8.8-10.2 mg/dL), hyperuricemia (2.4-5.7 mg/dL), hyperammonemia (19-60 mg/dL), increased AST-ALT level (AST >40 U/L, ALT >41 U/L) were also recorded.
The BP response to hypoxia results from the complex interaction between several factors, including the effects of chemoreflexes (vasoconstriction), hyperventilation (vasodilation), and central and peripheral contrasting effects of hypoxia and hypocapnia
. [12,19] Sympathetic nervous system activation caused by cold and hypoxia may also cause platelet activation and trigger acute coronary syndrome.
Changes in human cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume during hypercapnia and hypocapnia
measured by positron emission tomography.
Role of cerebrospinal fluid pH in normalization of flow in chronic hypocapnia
. Circ Res 1966; 19: 274.