stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway enhances cell survival.
These reactions may also produce non-free radical forms such as hypochlorous acid
HOCl, hypobromous acid HBrO, and hypoiodous acid HOI , as well as oxygen and iron complexes of higher oxidation states, e.g.
The key to delivering a powerful sanitizing agent is to form hypochlorous acid
without elemental chlorine, which occurs at around neutral pH.
The active factors responsible for the bactericidal effect of EAW are chlorine-related substances, such as chlorine, hypochlorous acid
, and hypochlorous ion.
Caption: Figure 2: (a) Hypochlorous acid
penetrates the bacteria and dissociates.
Strongin, "Recent progress in chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for hypochlorous acid
," Analyst, vol.
OCuSOFT HypoChlor is a 0.02% concentration of hypochlorous acid
in both spray and gel formulations that can be used to supplement existing OCuSOFT Lid Scrub eyelid cleansers in the most severe cases of eyelid disorders.
When the trigger spray is pulled, the neutralizer combines with the sodium hypochlorite, converting it into hypochlorous acid
, a highly effective form of bleach, as it is sprayed on the surface.
In addition to [O.sub.2.sup.*-] and [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], the ROS hypochlorous acid
(HOCl), generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) present in neutrophil and macrophage granules, has been demonstrated to bind to the heme moiety of Hb causing heme destruction, protein modification, and protein aggregation as well as formation of additional peroxidase-like activity [3, 4].
Neutrophilic granulocytes (a crucial cellular part of the immune system) activated during chronic inflammation generate not only proteolytic enzymes and antibacterial proteins but also considerable amounts of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) including both nonradical species (hypochlorous acid
(HOCl) and peroxynitrite (ONO[O.sup.-])) and different free radicals, which are, transient compounds with at least one unpaired electron (superoxide anion ([O.sub.2.sup.*-]), nitric oxide (N[O.sup.*])) .
Baran, "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of hypochlorous acid
: Interactions with taurine and nitrite," Inflammation Research, vol.
The group's focus is now its drug development strategy, which is based on the company's patented hypochlorous acid
technology and formulations at high concentrations.