Out of 1001 cases, 37 per cent were found positive for various abnormalities like; Del13q(RB1), Del17p(TP53), t (4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16), 1q, Hypodiploidy
and Hyperdipolidy etc.
Whereas, Kim et al found that the prognostic factors for reduced overall survival rate in patients with IgD multiple myeloma were advanced age, the presence of cytogenetic abnormalities such as del(13) or hypodiploidy
, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and high serum p2 microglobulin.
In ALL, cytogenetic abnormalities can have an effect on prognosis and response to treatment as hyperdioploidy has a better outcome than hypodiploidy
15] Whole-chromosome aneuploidy, including hyperdiploidy and hypodiploidy
is the somatic mutation that can predispose to tumor development.
5 g/dL Serum calcium >3 mmol/L High concentrations of M-protein (IgG>70 g/L, IgA>50 g/L or Bence-Jones protein >12g/24 hours) Other Cytogenetic (by conventional prognostic karyotyping and by FISH): markers: Good/Average: Hyperdiploidy, t(11;14) Bad/poor: Hypodiploidy
, Deletion 13q on conventional cytoegentics, t(4;14), t(14;16), chromosome 1 abnormalities, 17p deletion Others: Advanced age, poor performance status, high LDH, high CRP, low platelets, M-protein (e.
Pseudodiploidy is detected in 9-36% of MM patients whereas hypodiploidy
is observed in 10-30% of patients.
is associated with a poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
9% of children and 4% of adults showed hypodiploidy
with 40-45 chromosomes.
Adult B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma with hypodiploidy
(--9) and a novel chromosomal translocation t(7;12)(q22;p13) presenting with severe eosinophilia--case report and review of literature.
Cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into 2 groups, as follows: 1) high risk: t(11q23)/MLL, t(9;22)/bcr-abl, hypodiploidy
(<45 chromosomes), 1(1;19), t(8q24)/C-MYC, and complex karyotype; 2) standard risk: normal karyotype, hyperdiploidy, and other structural aberrations.
Numerical chromosomal changes such as hypodiploidy
are associated with poor outcome, while hyperdiploidy is shown to be associated with a better prognosis (3).