manufactures an implantable device that stimulates multiple tongue muscles via the hypoglossal
nerve, which opens the airway while a patient is sleeping.
Partial condyle should be drilled (if necessary) with a high-speed diamond drill to expose and open the hypoglossal
canal as well as the jugular foramen for the removal of tumors in the jugular foramen.
Involvement of lateral portion of the right occipital condyle, right jugular tubercle of the occipital bone and the hypoglossal
canal region is also noted.
The canal of the hypoglossal
nerve is located at the anterolateral margin of this foramen (Kizilkanat et al.
However, oropharyngeal involvement (secondary glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal
nerve palsy) mostly accompanies MS, though it is sometimes overlooked (6).
Sleep medicine, otolaryngology, and other medical specialists from the US, Asia, and Europe discuss the history of sleep medicine; the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea, diagnosis through drug-induced sleep endoscopy, and treatment outcomes; the history of sleep surgery; novel positional devices for the treatment of positional obstructive sleep apnea; the updated Friedman staging system; advances in CPAP therapy and oral appliances; updates to nasal, palate, hypopharyngeal, minimally invasive, and box surgery; multilevel obstructive sleep apnea surgery; hypoglossal
nerve stimulation systems; robotic surgery; pediatric obstructive sleep apnea; and future perspectives.
The complete course of second branchial fistula begins near the anterior border of the SCM, tracks superiorly and laterally to the common carotid artery, passes medially between the external and internal carotid arteries, moves lateral and superior to the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal
nerves, and penetrates the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle to open into the tonsillar fossa.
Therefore, it is important to consider the possible causes of hypoglossal
nerve palsy related to surgery or anesthesia, including intubation, the surgical positions, and mask ventilation during recovery.
3) Important structures seen surrounding the styloid process laterally are the facial nerve, the hypoglossal
nerve, the occipital artery and the posterior belly of digastric muscle.
Since then many other donor nerves have been promoted which include intercostal nerves4-6, thoracodorsal nerve4, medial pectoral nerve4,7, long thoracic nerve4, distal accessory nerve4,5, ipsilateral C7 root8, contralateral C7 root9, suprascapular nerve4,and hypoglossal
To carry out this review, information was collected by way of article searches in the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, LILACS and PEDro, using the MeSH terms: sleep apnea, obstructive; airway obstruction; obesity; sleep apnea and death; cardiovascular diseases; cognitive disorders; mental disorders; kidney diseases; endocrine system disease; metabolic syndrome X; comorbidity; therapeutics; continuos positive airway pressure; mandibular advancement; hypoglossal
nerve and electric stimulation.
Absence or moderate to severe hypoplasia of###* Primitive hypoglossal