(5.) Nishio S, Morioka T, Fukui M, et al.Surgical treatment of Intractable Seizures Due To Hypothalamic
damage, promoted by genetic defects, radiotherapy or the resection of a brain tumor can lead to neuroendocrine dysfunctions resulting in morbid obesity (5).
BEP produced from pituitary POMC in response to hypothalamic
CRF and AVP, in contrast, circulates in the periphery and has less impact on sympathetic nervous system function (Wynne and Sarkar 2013).
hamartomas (HHs) are rare tumor-like malformations, originating from tuber cinereum and inferior hypothalamus .
The endocannabinoid system is involved in food intake regulation through the expression and/or action of several hypothalamic
anorexigenic and orexigenic mediators.
However, it has not yet been explored whether visfatin participates in the hypothalamic
inflammatory response, which triggers homeostatic metabolic responses and causes perturbation of the energy balance.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated asymmetric T2/FLAIR hyperintense, nonenhancing enlargement of the right hypothalamus, concerning for a hypothalamic
glioma (Figure 1).
Research suggests that hypothalamic
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes hypothalamic
dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis, which leads to feeding behavior disorders associated with obesity and diabetes [7-9].
MC3Rs are distributed throughout the hypothalamus and limbic structures, while MC4Rs are more extensively expressed in the amygdala, thalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, notably, the ARC, the PVN, the LHA (lateral hypothalamic
area), the VMN (ventromedial hypothalamic
nucleus), and the brainstem (notably in the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), the NTS, and the parabrachial nucleus) [6, 7].
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hypothalamic
hamartoma (HH) (Figures 1a-c).
Peripheral signal reflecting energy balance can be integrated at the hypothalamic
arcuate nucleus in mammals and infundibular nucleus in avian species.
Chris and Wendy Watkins already knew one of the twins, Riley, had hypothalamic
hamartoma, however they have now found out that their other son has the same tumour.