As reported as the research in 2006, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothalamic amenorrhea
, hyperprolactinemia, and ovarian failure were the most common causes of amenorrhea; in addition, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
(FHA) is responsible for 20–35% of secondary amenorrhea cases.
4,7,8) The position stand states that the three spectrums occur on a sliding scale ranging from optimal energy availability, eumenorrhea, and optimal bone mineral density to low energy availability with or without an eating disorder, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
, and osteoporosis respectively.
Women for whom the STRAW-10 criteria are not applicable include those with polycystic ovarian syndrome or hypothalamic amenorrhea
Bone mineral changes in young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea
treated with oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, or placebo over 12 months.
A new approach to the treatment of infertility in hypothalamic amenorrhea
This energy imbalance disrupts the normal hormone axis and leads to what is called "functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
," resulting in irregular or absent menses ("period").
The 2003 Rotterdam criteria [Human Reproduction 2004;19:41-7] were not used because the definition is less strict and could include adolescents with hypothalamic amenorrhea
, she noted.
1) After ruling it out, the clinician may choose to exclude other causes of secondary amenorrhea before presuming a diagnosis of hypothalamic amenorrhea
All women with hypothalamic amenorrhea
were 90%-110% of ideal body weight; amenorrheic for at least 3 months; had normal FSH, prolactin, testosterone, and free testosterone levels; an LH-to-FSH ratio of less than 2.
Women were categorized clinically as normal (either obese or nonobese), or as having hyperprolactinemia, hypothalamic amenorrhea
, or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (again, either obese or nonobese).