These metabolic factors lead to a hypercoagulable, hypoxaemic
and inflammatory state, increasing the risk for cardiac morbidity and mortality.
ARDS is characterised by severe acute hypoxaemic
respiratory failure with increased work of breathing and decreased lung compliance, which together usually mandate mechanical ventilation.
The normal physiological state of a fetus is best described as hypoxaemic
, with PH and reduced pulmonary blood flow, and with the placenta responsible for gas and nutrient exchange.
It also states that prior to discharge from hospital after an exacerbation, patients that remain hypoxaemic
should be assessed with either ABG and/or pulse oximetry and then reassessed within three months.
Five more patients demised after 48 hours due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with sepsis, while care was withdrawn from one patient with severe hypoxaemic
29,36] demonstrated in animal studies that the reintroduction of oxygen in the initial stages of CPB or mechanical ventilation can induce per se myocardial injury in the hypoxaemic
7,8] It was postulated that chest recession reflects the effort to improve oxygenation in hypoxaemic
children with lower respiratory infection and this may be the reason that the use of accessory muscles had been shown to correlate strongly with the severity of disease.
Does long-term supplemental oxygen therapy reduce hospitalisations in hypoxaemic
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Oxygen was administered to all hypoxaemic
children; appropriate feeding was given by providing locally-prepared milk-based diet, milk-suji, including breastfeeding for the breastfed ones.
The recently published Xtravent study  confirmed that hypoxaemic
patients treated with an ultraprotective ventilation strategy (tidal volumes 2-3 ml/kg) have a significantly shorter ventilation period, which suggests that early initiation of ECMO is important in those with critical acute lung injury.
Recruitment manoeuvres involve the sustained application of positive pressure to the ventilated lung in an attempt to reopen collapsed segments; they may improve oxygenation and have been considered as potential adjuncts to lung-protective ventilation (26-27) However, two large trials failed to demonstrate benefits with the routine use of recruitment manoeuvre protocols, but did confirm they are safe to apply (28-29) Recruitment manoeuvres may have a role to play in individual optimisation of ventilation strategies in severely hypoxaemic
patients, but it remains to be elucidated how best to perform them and the optimal timing of their use (30).
ARDS is an acute hypoxaemic
respiratory failure, following a systemic or pulmonary infection.