In the 1970s, when technology was very primitive compared with now, Professor Stevenson and his team at the University of Southampton discovered that in each individual patient, all malignant B-cells (cancer cells) display a unique marker protein called an idiotype
Using the decision tree, genotypes with low yields or undesirable characteristics are discarded, allowing only the highest yielding genotypes and those near the desired idiotype
to advance to the T3 phase.
Active site of antibodies for some idiotypes
reproduces three-dimensional structure of the antigen against which the antibodies having particular idiotype
are directed; such active sites are designated as internal image of the antigen.
In some instances, some antibodies, called idiotype
antibodies, act as antigens, triggering an immune response similar to that described above.
Phase II trial of idiotype
vaccination in previously treated patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resulting in durable clinical responses.
The topics include the purification of primary malignant B-cells and immunoblot analysis of Bcl-2 family proteins, idiotype
gene rescue in follicular lymphoma, and antibody techniques used to study anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive ALCL.
But now compare the idiotype
represented by hypothetical Genotype A.
These antibodies may directly bind to the idiotype
of the drug or to other sites in its proximity, eliciting steric hindrance that, in turn, prevents binding of the drug to TNF.
When the researchers examined immune-system cells from the transgenic mice, they found large amounts of a type of antibody displaying the characteristic chemical signature, or idiotype
, of the foreign gene.
Expression of VHIII-associated cross-reactive idiotype
on human B lymphocytes.
Specificity and idiotype
expression of IgM produced by CD5+ and CD5- cord blood B cells.