The humus cover of mineral agricultural soils consists of humus (A) and/or raw-humus (AT) horizons, but the subsoil includes the eluvial (E) and/or illuvial
(B) horizons and is underlain by soil parent material or substratum.
Commonly, the soils in the area are rich by nutrients in humus horizon (A, Table 2), illuvial
and elluvial horizons showing depletion trend.
The soil layer was selected in view of the highest need for the reclamation of the illuvial
Ultisols commonly feature an E (eluvial) horizon above an illuvial
horizon with clay precipitation and have relative low base status.
The textural differentiation might be caused by an illuvial
accumulation of clay, predominant pedogenetic formation of clay in the subsoil, destruction of clay in the surface horizon, selective surface erosion of clay, upward movement of coarser particles due to swelling and shrinking, biological activity, and a combination of two or more of these different processes .
From a typological perspective, it can be classified into brown eumesobasic soils, brown illuvial
argillaceous soils (partially pseudogleyic), as well as pseudorendsina on more argillaceous marl, all of them very suitable for the vine, except for those whose hydro-physical features are neither favourable for vine growing, nor artificially improved for this purpose.
Dark-grey soils differ by more density of humus profile, reduction of eluvial thickness and less illuvial
To distinguish erosion classes, the illuvial
horizon B was separated in three parts (Bt1, Bt2, and BC) that were easily recognized in the field by the identification of the B subhorizon located below the plowed layer.
Soil2 was illuvial
humus podzol (Placic, Rustic, Albic, Folic, Stagnic Podzols) with Myrtilloso-polytrichosa forest type (forest type classification according to Buss (1997), and soil types according to Latvian and FAO WRB (2006) soil classifications).
soil horizon B is marked by increased concentrations of lead and copper.
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