130): "I believe it is somewhat unfair on Plato's part to dismiss Callicles' immoralism
in this fashion.
The real, basic difference, however, lies in the religion of immoralism
Thus, generally speaking, irreligious humanitarianism necessarily involves a certain bias for immoralism
inasmuch as it has no room for the concept of intrinsic moral evil, and of the moral scissure in human nature.
The term 'morality' is given subcategories: empirical natural morality, Christian revealed morality, Anglican natural morality, irreligious hedonistic immoralism
, and rationalistic natural morality.
How telling that even a thinker as committed to moral universality as Frohnen should be prone to a kind of partial amoralism or immoralism
! What better evidence that the meaning of morality needs to be reconsidered.
Her chapters, each with a helpful summary, discuss 'natural evil', responsibility, aggression, fate vs free will, 'selves and shadows', Freud's death wish and evil in evolution; despatching errors in immoralism
, relativism, fatalism, subjectivism and determinism en route.
The paper argues that the Socratic critique of rhetoric is based on the moral neutrality of Sophistic rhetoric, defining it first as a tool, then as an art of manipulation, which might lead to immoralism
, as embodied by Callicles.
If the question of human dignity, the need to end useless suffering, the demand to confront climate change, and the nature of the common good represent some of the most pressing issues of the day and if reason seems to waver between theodicean immoralism
and stuttering imbecility, then how are we to live according to the light of reason?
Perhaps the most momentous of Berry's points, however, concerns morality--in particular her contention that Nietzsche's 'immoralism
' and self-described 'attack on morality' resemble a Pyrrhonian attack and exemplify more closely that breed of skepticism than any other.
Of course, if "immoralism
" is to be ruled out, so, by my lights, is "duty for duty's sake." Far from being opposed to pleasure as its contrary, virtue, as Aristotle shows us, is accompanied by pleasure.
Given that he places Ropke in the Smithian Scottish Enlightenment tradition in his final chapter, I would like to have seen him follow up Ropke's identification of "strong reservations" and "strange fashion." Gregg and Ropke might have discovered that just as important as Keynes' contributions to a scientific derailment of economics was his avowed immoralism
. At the core of Keynes' priority of ethics over economics was his rejection of any vestige of bourgeois morality and the Christian religion at the root of it.
If he reprobated Impressionism, he recoiled in loathing from the exhibitionist immoralism
of Oscar Wilde, who not only insisted that there was no place for ethics in art, but implied that the principal duty in life was self-indulgence.