To evaluate sperm motility, 10 fields were randomly selected and sperms were categorized as different motile types or immotile
. (19) For the evaluation of sperm morphology, sperm smears were stained with eosin Y and sperms were classified as normal or abnormal subgroups according to the criteria of normal sperm morphology.
Both motile and immotile
spermatozoa were then counted.
The protozoa consumed the substrate during the first 8 h of incubation and then became immotile
Patients suffering from immotile
cilia syndrome, cystic fibrosis and youngs syndrome were excluded.
(8) He postulated that 3 male patients are having immotile
spermatozoa & infertility, while women presented with reduced fertility.
Total sperm count, sperm morphology, and percentage of motile and immotile
sperm cells were similar in the control and 720 mg/kg bw/day groups at the end of the treatment period.
Among predisposing factors of poor spermatozoa quality, there are congenital defects (testicular hypoplasia, the immotile
cilia syndrome, and chromosomal abnormalities), cryptorchidism (the presence of only one or none testis in the scrotum) , duct system anomalies (cysts or developmental anomalies of the epididymis, the vas deferens, or the rete testis) , and prostate disorders (benign prostatic hypertrophy) (Ruel et al., 1998, prostatitis , prostatic cysts , and prostatic neoplasia ).
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular process that converts immotile
and polarized epithelial cells to motile mesenchymal cells, which occurs in embryonic development, fibrosis, and wound healing; meantime, cancer development and progression that resemble embryonic development are regulated and controlled by EMT .
Based on these assessments, the sperm motility was classified as rapid (VCL > 25 [micro]m/s), medium (25 < VCL < 5), slow (VCL < 5), and immotile
(VCL = 0 [micro]m/s) and sperm progression as progressive motile (PM, STR > 80%), nonprogressive motile (NPM, 80% > STR > 0%), and immotile
, STR = 0%).
It is known that dextrocardia with situs inversus has a 15% association of another rare disease that affects primarily the respiratory tract and the epithelia of the sexual organs, the Kartagener syndrome (immotile
cilia syndrome characterized by bronchitis, chronic sinusitis, and infertility in men).
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program that results in the conversion of immotile
epithelial cells into migratory mesenchymal cells .