The effect of implosives
and prenasalized stops on pitch in Shona.
Lindau (1980a) discusses some of the phonetic differences among several Nigerian languages, addressing the classes of rhotics, implosives
, and vowels.
It is based on the assumption that the innovative forms in Penan and Sebop went through an earlier stage where *bh, *dh, *jh, and *gh were reflected as implosives that were later merged with the plain voiced series.
According to Blust (2007) and Smith (2015) voiced implosive reflexes of PKen *bh *dh, *jh, and *gh justify a Lowland Kenyah group of languages, as opposed to Highland Kenyah where the same PKen phonemes are reflected by voiceless stops.
Phonemic inventory of Siriaki and acoustic analysis of voiced implosives
can be written with corresponding plosive sounds with a diacritic.
The spirantization of stops to fricatives *K > *X word-finally and before an obstruent suffix has no parallel in Balto-Slavic, where the glottalic stops were implosives
, as they still are in Sindhi (cf.
As Hansson notes, in Ngizim, voiced implosives
do not trigger voicing agreement on preceding (non-implosive
) obstruents; the two classes of consonants are too dissimilar to be compelled to correspond, and hence to agree in voicing.
td not [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), IPA symbols ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for Siraiki implosives
, but not for Sindhi implosives
), and ad hoc symbols.
In Anakalangese pronunciation, the consonants not preceded by m or n are implosives
Meme chose pour Tarik Kabbage, lors du precedent mandat oE sa majorite tenait au bout du fil, a cause des rixes implosives
qui n'en finissaient jamais.
Consonant sounds include stops or plosives bnshy y dhmkyr (which are further divided into different categories listed below), implosives
khly dhmkyr nasals nkn y nk r, laterals, trills and fricatives .