A condition known as imposex
where the females grow a pseudopenis and become reproductively nonviable is believed to result from tributyltin exposure (O'Neal et al.
These biocides are very toxic and affect the marine fauna; some examples include gastropod imposex
, mussel larvae mortality and oyster shell malformations that have all been associated to ecotoxicological effects caused by TBT, even at extremely low concentrations (Alzieu, 2000; Konstantinou & Albanis, 2004).
in Plicopurpura pansa (Neogastropoda: Thaididae) in Nayarit and Sinaloa, Mexico.
TBT was mostly employed in sea-bound vessels (Radke et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2013); however, two decades later this chemical was associated with imposex
, a disorder that involves the imposition of male sexual characteristics on the female reproductive system of some gastropods.
Tale of Ships, Snails and Imposex
, in 22 European Environmental Agency
(4) In marine snails, TBT causes a condition called imposex
, in which females develop male sex organs.
It has been shown that extremely low concentrations of TBT moiety cause defective shell growth and imposex
in the oyster Crassostrea gigas.
The TBT contributes to the development of antimicrobial tolerance and imposex
or pseudohermaphroditism in marine invertebrates .
To these species, TBT acts as an endocrine disrupter, affecting wild populations of marine gastropods by means of the syndromes called imposex
and intersex [7-13].
Wild populations of muricid gastropod Thais tissoti were surveyed to observe morphological response of the species against imposex