Findings suggest that the extent of family unemployment affects unemployed in-group identification and predicts readiness to change unemployed status.
For example, advice provided by out-group members may be treated with suspicion or as a threat to social identity (Amiot & Hornsey, 2010), suggesting that unemployed individuals may be less likely to accept advice from those who are not members of the unemployed in-group (Amiot & Hornsey, 2010).
In-group/out-group bias occurs when the in-group is viewed as superior to the out-group in order to maintain positive social identity (DeCremer, 2000).
2002)--from the self to the collective level, and verified that belonging to an in-group is also an aspect of self (Bennett & Sani, 2008).
Gaertner, Iuzzini, Witt, & Orina, 2006; Morrison, Fast, & Ybarra, 2009) have indicated that social identity is determined not only by the in-group to which individuals belong, but also by the corresponding out-group.
The ancient sense of in-group versus out-group, of "us versus them" was still part of the human heritage, part of human nature.
The ground floor of our building was still intact but a second floor, a new superstructure of ethical principles, had been built on it that governed relations between outlying members of the enlarged in-group.
Since the extended family is the primary in-group for members of collectivistic cultures, its importance to the individual's feelings of self-worth is paramount.
Such beliefs often lead to a preference for and use of nontraditional medical/spiritual sources that can return the affflicted person to harmony with the group, thereby resolving the problem through in-group resources (LaFromboise et al.
Further, the data reveal examples of humor in which the out-group is the butt of the joke and some in which the in-group is the principal subject.
1) Humor as a means of building in-group solidarity.