The GRE was used to extend research on the self-reference effect (SRE)--according to which, information encoded with reference to the self is more easily remembered than information encoded with reference to other properties (Johnson et al., 2002)--from the self to the collective level, and verified that belonging to an in-group is also an aspect of self (Bennett & Sani, 2008).
Researchers (e.g., Gaertner, Iuzzini, Witt, & Orina, 2006; Morrison, Fast, & Ybarra, 2009) have indicated that social identity is determined not only by the in-group to which individuals belong, but also by the corresponding out-group.
Their results not only confirmed previous research findings that the presentation of subliminal stimuli regarding the in-group or out-group improved in-group social identity but they also found that, compared to the single presentation of in-group or out-group stimuli, combining these types of stimuli resulted in the highest level of in-group social identity.
The ancient sense of in-group versus out-group, of "us versus them" was still part of the human heritage, part of human nature.
The ground floor of our building was still intact but a second floor, a new superstructure of ethical principles, had been built on it that governed relations between outlying members of the enlarged in-group.
Here again, the new sense of the in-group hasn't replaced the older ones, it has simply displaced them, leaving them diminished but essentially intact.
Since the extended family is the primary in-group for members of collectivistic cultures, its importance to the individual's feelings of self-worth is paramount.
Such beliefs often lead to a preference for and use of nontraditional medical/spiritual sources that can return the affflicted person to harmony with the group, thereby resolving the problem through in-group resources (LaFromboise et al., 1990).
Utilization differences between cultural groups have been attributed to various factors including a general mistrust for all public service systems and a preference for utilizing in-group, community-based resources (Wright, 1988), and a view that disabilities are undesirable and better handled within the extended family network (Chan et al., 1988).
There are two audiences at whom their humor is directed: themselves (the in-group) and their non-handicapped peers (the out-group).
(1) Humor as a means of building in-group solidarity.
Whether the unit is a family, a sports team or a social club, most groups develop a system of inside humor which serves to bring the group members closer together and which helps define the boundary between themselves (the in-group) and others (the out-group).