in Amitav Ghosh's Sea of Poppies." Ariel:
In her doctoral dissertation titled 'Indian Women's Lives and Labor: The Indentureship
Experience in Trinidad and Guyana 1845-1917', Sumita Chatterjee draws attention to the discomfort faced while crossing the kala-pani: 'the passage was fraught with physical discomfort of narrow confined spaces and mental dilemmas of going away to the unknown.
Specifically, Edward Ou Jin Lee examines the relationship between the legacies of colonial history as "forgotten histories" of violence that embed Canada's national borders in the project of racial exclusion that connect histories of slavery, genocide, and indentureship
to contemporary exclusionary practices in refugee adjudication.
The choice of theme reflects the Caribbean's colonized past, from the islands' Indigenous inhabitants who were enslaved and, in some cases, exterminated, to the African slave trade and the "indentureship
" of people from India and China.
At that July 2013 meeting, Heads also agreed to establish a CARICOM Reparation Commission (CRC) and National Committees on Reparation in each country to establish the moral, ethical and legal case for the claim for reparation from the former colonial European countries, for the nations and people of the Caribbean Community for native genocide, the transatlantic trade in enslaved African people and a radicalized system of chattel enslavement, and Asian indentureship
As Edouard Glissant reminds us in his Le Discours antillais (1981), landscape can be considered as visible evidence of historical events such as slavery, indentureship
, and the oppression associated with these systems: "Notre paysage ...
She argues that violence against children in the Caribbean should be understood within the context of the region's colonial history and periods of enslavement and indentureship
. She discusses violence and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and comparisons of Bangladesh, Canada, Nicaragua, the Netherlands, and Trinidad and Tobago, followed by the results of her study of Trinidad and Tobago, which examines the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about violence against children, violence tolerance, and child rights; measures of implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child; the relationship between violence definition and violence tolerance; and recommendations for policy, practice, and research.
(3.) Of course these weren't the only perspectives and as I developed more knowledge of Caribbean Studies then research on slavery, indentureship
. plantation economies, history, and socio-cultural analyses became predominant.
South Africa is not usually considered in analyses of the Black Atlantic, yet West Indian planters resettled there as part of the development of colonial plantation economy and indentured South Asian laborers were brought there to work after the system of Indian indentureship
had been pioneered in the Caribbean.
Another instance of collective action involved a 2010 50-km march called the 'Pilgrimage to Freedom: Breaking the Chains of Indentureship
' between Leamington and Windsor.