and Reference-Shifting: Towards a Pragmatic Approach, JONAS AKERMAN
1) I propose a new semantics for the I-concept, conceived for the first time as a special type of phenomenal concept; this semantics is inspired by that of a class of linguistic expressions called indexicals
David Kaplan's semantic theory of indexicals
(linguistic items that encompass the so-called "deictics") is certainly one of the most influential theories of indexicals
in Linguistics and in Philosophy.
A further component of the semantic profile of indexicals
and demonstratives is given by a rule for picking out a referent relative to a context of use.
Prosser calls this an error through misclassification, and he argues that judgments involving most indexicals
and demonstratives are either IEM or immune to error through misclassification, but not both.
The first is the linguistic study of what personal indexicals
('I', 'me', etc.
A review of the notions of "Context" and "Circunstance" in Kaplan's theory of direct reference for indexicals
Contributors cover such topic as synchronic and diachronic evidence for parallels between noun phrases and sentences, the development of Creole languages, oppositions from proto-Indo-European to Latin, the development of early to late Latin, the history of two Greek tenses, actionality and aspect in Hittite, imperfectivity and complete events, transitions in Portuguese and Spanish, the old Nordic middle voice, tense and aspect in Semitic languages, the verb phrase in the Kerebe language, comparative TAM morphology in Niger-Congo, indexicals
in Australian languages, and differential object marking in Sahidic Coptic.
Thanks to David Kaplan (1989a, 1989b), we all know how to handle indexicals
Reichenbachian approaches to indexicality contend that indexicals
are "token-reflexives": semantic rules associated with any given indexical
-type determine the truth-conditional import of properly produced tokens of that type relative to certain relational properties of those tokens.
5 Indeed,Carnap's biggest worry was that the logic of indexicals
was terra incognita lying beyond the limits he had explored in his Logical Syntax of Language (Carnap, , p.
It is much more sensible to allow that "good" is like indexicals
in that it picks out different standards in different contexts, and that somehow features of the context determine what standards are picked out.