What matters here it's the fact that token-reflexive expressions such as first-person pronouns and quasi-indicators are essential indexicals
: they can be neither eliminated nor replaced by a name, description, or demonstrative without losing the content expressed by the sentences/thoughts that contain them: to refer to (to think of) oneself qua oneself, the subject has to use the essential indexical
and Reference-Shifting: Towards a Pragmatic Approach, JONAS AKERMAN
Some expressions, such as names and indexicals
, are directly referential: they contribute to the propositional content expressed by the sentence in which they appear with the object referred to.
(Wright makes a similar observation at 247-8.) Prosser calls this an error through misclassification, and he argues that judgments involving most indexicals
and demonstratives are either IEM or immune to error through misclassification, but not both.
The first is the linguistic study of what personal indexicals
('I', 'me', etc.) refer to; that study's goal is a theory that systematizes as many uses of these terms as possible.
Contributors cover such topic as synchronic and diachronic evidence for parallels between noun phrases and sentences, the development of Creole languages, oppositions from proto-Indo-European to Latin, the development of early to late Latin, the history of two Greek tenses, actionality and aspect in Hittite, imperfectivity and complete events, transitions in Portuguese and Spanish, the old Nordic middle voice, tense and aspect in Semitic languages, the verb phrase in the Kerebe language, comparative TAM morphology in Niger-Congo, indexicals
in Australian languages, and differential object marking in Sahidic Coptic.
Thanks to David Kaplan (1989a, 1989b), we all know how to handle indexicals
Reichenbachian approaches to indexicality contend that indexicals
are "token-reflexives": semantic rules associated with any given indexical-type determine the truth-conditional import of properly produced tokens of that type relative to certain relational properties of those tokens.
5 Indeed,Carnap's biggest worry was that the logic of indexicals
was terra incognita lying beyond the limits he had explored in his Logical Syntax of Language (Carnap, , p.