Interestingly, profiles of indoxyl
sulfate clustered with this group of strong AhR agonists (Cluster 2).
The role of chemical toxicants in endothelial injury is also significant, including indoxyl
sulfate, nicotine, reactive oxygen, H[sub]2O[sub]2, and oxidative stress.
The plates were incubated in a microaerobic atmosphere at 41.5AdegC for 24h to 48h for examination of morphology, Gram staining, tests for catalase and oxidase, hippurate hydrolysis and hydrolysis identification of indoxyl
This includes AGEs, cytokines, interleukins, TNFa, homocysteine, indoxyl
sulfate, kynurenic acid, leptin, p-cresyl sulfate, etc.
Like the plant, the bacteria produces a compound called indoxyl
, which is insoluble and cannot be used as a dye.
sulfate is a metabolite of tryptophan-derived intestinal bacteria.
sulfate (IS) is an important uremic toxin; therefore, its levels in plasma have been extensively studied in end-stage renal disease .
Therefore, consumptive loss of fetuin-A caused by excess CPP formation and inhibition of production of fetuin-A in the liver by uremic toxins such as indoxyl
sulfate might also contribute to the high mortality in these patients .
Microbial diversity is significantly damaged in CKD patients, with a decreased number of beneficial bacteria that generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a fundamental nutrient for the colonic epithelium, and an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl
sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) .
Low urinary indoxyl
sulfate levels early after transplantation reflect a disrupted microbiome and are associated with poor outcome.
sulfate, a valuable biomaker in chronic kidney disease and dialysis.
The Production of p-Cresol Sulfate and Indoxyl
Sulfate in Vegetarians Versus Omnivores.