indurate

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in·du·rate

 (ĭn′də-rāt′, -dyə-)
v. in·du·rat·ed, in·du·rat·ing, in·du·rates
v.tr.
1. To make hard; harden: soil that had been indurated by extremes of climate.
2. To inure, as to hardship or ridicule.
3. To make callous or obdurate: "It is the curse of revolutionary calamities to indurate the heart" (Helen Maria Williams).
v.intr.
1. To grow hard; harden.
2. To become firmly fixed or established.
adj. (ĭn′do͝o-rĭt, -dyə-)
Hardened; obstinate; unfeeling.

[Latin indūrāre, indūrāt- : in-, intensive pref.; see in-2 + dūrus, hard; see deru- in Indo-European roots.]

in′du·ra′tive adj.

indurate

vb
1. to make or become hard or callous
2. to make or become hardy
adj
hardened, callous, or unfeeling
[C16: from Latin indūrāre to make hard; see endure]
ˌinduˈration n
ˈinduˌrative adj

in•du•rate

(v. ˈɪn dʊˌreɪt, -dyʊ-; adj. ˈɪn dʊ rɪt, -dyʊ-; ɪnˈdʊər ɪt, -ˈdyʊər-)

v. -rat•ed, -rat•ing,
adj. v.t.
1. to make hard; harden: Pressure and heat indurate the rock.
2. to make callous, stubborn, or unfeeling.
3. to inure; accustom.
4. to make enduring; establish.
v.i.
5. to become hard.
6. to become established.
adj.
7. hardened; unfeeling.
[1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin indūrāre to harden =in- in-2 + dūrāre, v. derivative of dūrūs hard]

indurate


Past participle: indurated
Gerund: indurating

Imperative
indurate
indurate
Present
I indurate
you indurate
he/she/it indurates
we indurate
you indurate
they indurate
Preterite
I indurated
you indurated
he/she/it indurated
we indurated
you indurated
they indurated
Present Continuous
I am indurating
you are indurating
he/she/it is indurating
we are indurating
you are indurating
they are indurating
Present Perfect
I have indurated
you have indurated
he/she/it has indurated
we have indurated
you have indurated
they have indurated
Past Continuous
I was indurating
you were indurating
he/she/it was indurating
we were indurating
you were indurating
they were indurating
Past Perfect
I had indurated
you had indurated
he/she/it had indurated
we had indurated
you had indurated
they had indurated
Future
I will indurate
you will indurate
he/she/it will indurate
we will indurate
you will indurate
they will indurate
Future Perfect
I will have indurated
you will have indurated
he/she/it will have indurated
we will have indurated
you will have indurated
they will have indurated
Future Continuous
I will be indurating
you will be indurating
he/she/it will be indurating
we will be indurating
you will be indurating
they will be indurating
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been indurating
you have been indurating
he/she/it has been indurating
we have been indurating
you have been indurating
they have been indurating
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been indurating
you will have been indurating
he/she/it will have been indurating
we will have been indurating
you will have been indurating
they will have been indurating
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been indurating
you had been indurating
he/she/it had been indurating
we had been indurating
you had been indurating
they had been indurating
Conditional
I would indurate
you would indurate
he/she/it would indurate
we would indurate
you would indurate
they would indurate
Past Conditional
I would have indurated
you would have indurated
he/she/it would have indurated
we would have indurated
you would have indurated
they would have indurated
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Verb1.indurate - become fixed or established; "indurated customs"
change - undergo a change; become different in essence; losing one's or its original nature; "She changed completely as she grew older"; "The weather changed last night"
2.indurate - make hard or harder; "The cold hardened the butter"
change - undergo a change; become different in essence; losing one's or its original nature; "She changed completely as she grew older"; "The weather changed last night"
face-harden - harden steel by adding carbon
callus - cause a callus to form on; "The long march had callused his feet"
anneal, temper, normalize - bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling; "temper glass"
harden, indurate - become hard or harder; "The wax hardened"
3.indurate - become hard or harder; "The wax hardened"
change - undergo a change; become different in essence; losing one's or its original nature; "She changed completely as she grew older"; "The weather changed last night"
encrust, incrust - form a crust or a hard layer
callus - form a callus or calluses; "His foot callused"
harden, indurate - make hard or harder; "The cold hardened the butter"
calcify - become impregnated with calcium salts
cure - make (substances) hard and improve their usability; "cure resin"; "cure cement"; "cure soap"
4.indurate - cause to accept or become hardened to; habituate; "He was inured to the cold"
callous, cauterise, cauterize - make insensitive or callous; deaden feelings or morals
brace oneself for, prepare for, steel oneself against, steel onself for - prepare mentally or emotionally for something unpleasant
accustom, habituate - make psychologically or physically used (to something); "She became habituated to the background music"
Adj.1.indurate - emotionally hardened; "a callous indifference to suffering"; "cold-blooded and indurate to public opinion"
insensitive - deficient in human sensibility; not mentally or morally sensitive; "insensitive to the needs of the patients"

indurate

verb
1. To make or become physically hard:
2. To make resistant to hardship, especially through continued exposure:
References in classic literature ?
The sinews and muscles, which had once denoted great strength, though shrunken, were still visible; and his whole figure had attained an appearance of induration, which, if it were not for the well known frailty of humanity, would have seemed to bid defiance to the further approaches of decay.
The elastic modulus (resistance to deformation) of the pure coal specimen is located between the indurations of expandable slurries with high water content at water-cement ratios of 9 : 1 and 8 : 1; the maximum strength of the pure coal specimen is located between the two, the value of which is 3.05 MPa.
Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists.
The size and indurations of lesions was measured by ruler and palpation respectively.
Results: Out of 800 contacts screened, 125 (15.6%) were positive on sputum smear examination while 113 had infiltration on X-rays along with positive tuberculin skin test (Indurations of greater than 10 mm) making a definitive diagnosis of TB.
Wound infection was diagnosed if there was purulent discharge, erythema, and indurations of the incision site.
Skin indurations in response to tuberculin testing in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis.
In children with exposure to an infectious adult, the TST should be interpreted as positive when TST indurations are greater than or equal to 5 mm.
Indurations were measured transversely to the long axis of the forearm with a clear, flexible scale.
This same meta-analysis also examined the significance of the size of the PPD response; a subset of 4 studies showed that equal proportions of BCG vaccinated and unvaccinated patients had indurations of 14 mm or more.
The TSTS for the 783 children yielded indurations of zero for 617 (79%) children, 1-9 mm for 108 (14%), 10-14 mm for 43 (5%), and [is greater than]15 mm for 15 (2%) (range: zero to 21 mm).
I wish someone could enlighten us with the origin of the magic numbers of 5 mm and 10 mm indurations and the standardization of measurement of the good old tuberculin test.