For instance, in kala-type nominals, we find the lengthening of the stem consonant -l- before the inflexional exponent in the partitive and illative cells in the singular (with attendant alternation in tone), and the palatalization of this (short) consonant in the partitive, elative, inessive
and illative cells in the plural.
Here are the abbreviations we use in the Spanish and Basque glosses: ABS = absolutive, AUX = auxiliary, BEN = benefactive; CL = clitic, DAT = dative, DET = determiner, ERG = ergative, FUT = future, GEN = genitive, INE = inessive
, PF = perfective, PRS = present, PST = past, PTCP = participle, SG = singular, 1 = first person, 2 = second person, 3 = third person.
sand-IN-ESS many stone-PL be 'There are a lot of stones in the sand.' The choice between the interessive and inessive
case in (2) is not dependent on the type of ground (which would be the case in the classifying strategy), but is used for a subtle meaning distinction.
Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 first, second, third person ABE abessive ADE adessive ADJ adjective ALL allative CLC clitic COM comitative COND conditional dINF da-infinitive EL elative ESS essive FEM female GEN genetive GER gerund ILL illative IMP imperative IMPS impersonal INE inessive
JUSS jussive mINF ma-infinitive NEG negation marker PL plural POSTP postposition PRCL particle PRS present PRTV partitive PST simple past PRTCP presnt participle PTCP past participle Q question marker QUOT quotative SG singular TRM terminative TRNSL translative
Iron nominative boex boex-toe boex genitive boex-i boex-t-i boex-y dative boex-oen boex-t-oen boex-oen allative boex-moe boex-toe-moe boex-moe ablative boex-aej boex-t-oej boex-aej inessive
boex-i boex-t-i boex-y adessive boex-boel boex-toe-boel boex-yl comitative (boexi xoeccoe) (boexti xoeccoe) boex-imoe equative boex-au boex-t-au boex-au pl.
In the area of deictic adverbs of place, the Finnish system is even more complex: it consists of two sets of three adverbs, related in form and meaning to the three demonstrative pronouns described above: tassa ('this' + inessive
) - tuossa ('that' + inessive
) - siina ('that/it'+ inessive
) and taalla ('this' + addessive ) tuolla ('that'+ addessive) - siella ('that/it'+ addessive).
Finnish kotona 'at home', otherwise location had been diversified into an inner locative (the inessive
in *-s-nA) and an outer locative (the adessive in *-l-nA), and the simplex suffix functions as an essive case as e.g.
Finnish, the only non-Indo-European language in this list, makes the distinction entirely through case marking on the noun, kaupunki 'town' with the inessive
case suffix -ssa for 'being in' and the illative -in for 'moving into'.
The primary meaning of the inessive
marker -ma is to indicate location, with or without confinement: uyar-e-ma "in town, in the market", libnan-e-ma "in Lebanon".
As Sander Lestrade (p.c.) pointed out to me, the Hungarian Inessive
case marker (-ban/-ben), encoding interior location, appears to be built on top of the goal-oriented Illative case (-ba/-be) by the affixation of -n.
ABL Ablative ACC Accusative AD Adessive CAUS Causative CM Contextualising marker COM Comitative COMP Complementiser COP Copula COUNT Counterfactual DEF Definite DEM demonstrative FUT Future marker IMP Imperative IMPFV Imperfective IN Inessive
INDEF Indefinite INSTR Instrumental NEG Negation OBJ Object OBL Oblique PASS Passive PRF Perfect PFV Perfective PROG Progressive REFL Reflexive REL Relativiser RM Remoteness marker SUB Subject SUBJ Subjunctive SUP Superessive VERS Versative References
Abbreviations ABS absolutive ADVLZR adverbializer APP applicative ART article BLC Basic Locative Construction BLF Basic Locative Function CONJ conjunction COP copula DET determiner DETR detransitive DIM diminutive EMPH emphatic EQU equative F feminine FOC focus HAB habitual INESS inessive
LOC locative MED medial N neuter NEG negative NF nonfuture NMZR nominalizer ORIENT orientativePERF PERF perfect PL plural PN pronoun PP postposition PRES present PROG progressive PRSUP presuppositional marker PSPV Picture Series for Positional Verbs (Ameka et al.