He has also reorganized the material into four sections: SPSS commands and assignment of levels of measurement; descriptive statistics and graphing; basic inferential statistics
; and relational statistics--prediction, describing, and exploring multi-variable relationships.
Additionally, the author presents the basics and challenge of originating a research question; the key steps in planning and designing a research study in the area of the social sciences (such as polling and surveys), from identifying a topic to recording measurements (central tendency, consistency, and dispersions); the application of descriptive statistics to data; the fundamentals of probability theory; and inferential statistics
. Throughout the book, the author provides a perfect integration of research methods with statistical reasoning by illustrating the various kinds of relevant examples from actual studies.
was calculated by applying paired sample t-test and the p-value was <0.001, indicating significant improvement because of inter-vention (table).
The data were analyzed by using different descriptive and inferential statistics
. Findings of the study indicated that head teachers support creativity, innovation and practice of new skills in the classroom.
Second, the data were analyzed with inferential statistics
to discover whether relationships are statistically significant.
Descriptive and inferential statistics
were applied for the analysis of the data.
Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics
(Shepherdson, 2003, International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, et al., 2013, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, 2007, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood, Shepherdson, 2005, Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518).
23).Statistical analysis was divided into two key parts including (a) descriptive statistics, and (b) inferential statistics
. In addition, prior to carrying the inferential statistics
normality tests were conducted as means of ensuring that required assumptions for carrying out normality tests were not violated.
* Inferential statistics
is a form of induction moving from a random sample to a population.
Table 7 presents the descriptive and inferential statistics
regarding the use of magazines and journals by schools.
E) Statistical Methods: The statistical procedures are primarily of two types namely descriptive and inferential statistics
. The descriptive statistics deals with how to summarize sets of numerical data using median, means, standard deviation, standard error of mean, sample size and correlation coefficient.