The medical director agreed, warning that worse than the physical harm from infibulation
is its "mental effect on the child .
In this context, clitondectomy and infibulation
serve a clear purpose: they guarantee virginity, morality, marriageability, and the hope of old age security, all in one decisive action taken when she is too young to object (ibid.
Female circumcision, particularly the infibulation
that transforms a child's vulva into a smooth area of scar tissue, is aesthetically satisfying to its practitioners.
and Abul Fatuh Ahmed (1967): Circumcision and Infibulation
The Somali practise different types of Firauni infibulation
Another belief is that FGM is possibly originated in Africa as the most radical form of FGM, infibulation
, is mostly seen in areas where Arab and Black African cultures meet.
Vulvar closure is especially due to infibulation
with obstruction of the rima vulvae.
, an extreme form of FGC, is also practiced among the Somali (90%), Afar (63%), Berta (10%), Harari (5%) and Oromo (1%) (NCTPE 1998).
Women sometimes express an opinion that FGM in the form of infibulation
is meant to enhance men's sexual pleasure.
59) Some groups that practice infibulation
, such as the Sudanese, typically reinfibulate women after the birth of each child.
Type III Infibulation
, or the removal of the external female genitalia and the sealing or narrowing of the vaginal opening using stitches or glue.
In the shadow of the Eiffel Tower there is infibulation
, polygamy, and child marriage.