Excision and infibulations
are the most common among the Taitas and Maasais while clitoridectomy is preferred by the Somali and Taveta communities.
The World Health Organization has agreed upon an international categorization of FGM divided into four types, depending on the extent of genital tissue removed: type [IOTA] (clitoridectomy), type II (excision), type III (infibulations
) and type IV (other).
Recent estimates indicate that around 10% of cases are infibulations
. This is the most severe form of FGM, also known as pharaonic FGM, as opposed to so-called sunna FGM that can refer to the first and second type .
Chantal Zabus argues that same-sex desire happens where it is least expected, for instance, the exciser who stimulates the girl's clitoris to facilitate the rite and the brides-to-be who ask for anal sex to avoid damaging their infibulations
(Out in Africa 254).
Type III: Infibulation
: narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or labia majora with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulations
Circumcision & infibulations
of females: A general consideration of the problem and a clinical study of the complications in Sudanese Women.
The third is infibulations
(commonly known as the Sudanese circumcision) where the vaginal opening is narrowed through the creating a covering seal.
Similar experiences have been documented in Djibouti where grandmothers are opposed to less severe forms of circumcision on the grounds they do not measure up to infibulations
can also cause enormous cysts which have to be removed surgically to avoid infection.
to FGM (mostly infibulations
) in comparison to the control group).
It is clear under our past precedent that any of the methods used to conduct female genital mutilation, including clitoridectomy, excision or infibulations
, would satisfy the requirements for past persecution....
In 2005, a United Nations report found that 97 percent of Egyptian females between the ages of 15 and 49 had undergone one of four types of genital mutilation--clitoridectomy, excision, infibulations
, or the miscellaneous pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, or cauterizing of the genital areal The practice is cultural rather than religious in origin, more African than Middle Eastern.