(7-10,12,39-40) Recently, success rates for different treatment methods to remove fibrous ingluvial FBs in 33 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) were described.
Fibrous ingluvial foreign bodies in 33 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).
Whelden, "Note on the exchange of ingluvial
food in the genus Myrmecia," Insectes Sociaux, vol.
The direct branch of the right common artery of the vagus nerve presented the highest frequency (48.71%), followed by the frequency of 22.66% of the branches of cutaneous arteries; 13.32% of them originated from indirect branches of ingluvial artery; 6.36% of cranial thyroid artery; 6.16% of the indirect branches of the common artery of the vagus nerve; 1.79% of the branches came from the caudal thyroid artery; 0.4% arose from the common carotid artery; 0.2% were indirect branches of the ascending esophageal artery, and with similar frequencies the direct branches of the same artery and the direct branches of the left common artery of the vagus nerve.
The ingluvial artery contributed for the blood supply from one to 11 branches in 23 animals, all on the right antimere; in nine cases, only one branch was given; in five cases, two branches; in two cases, three branches; in two cases, six branches, in three cases, five branches; in one case, four branches; and in one case, 11 branches.
We also registered direct and indirect branches of the left and right cranial thyroid artery; left and right caudal thyroid artery; left and right ascending esophageal artery; right ingluvial; and cutaneous, corroborating the studies from Santana et al.
region was plucked and prepared surgically.
The one published study of radiation dose tolerance in birds administered megavoltage radiation in 4-Gy fractions to the ingluvial area of ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) up to a total dose of 72 Gy without ill effects.
Ingluvial squamous cell carcinoma in a geriatric cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus).
Seven birds (6 cockatiels and 1 lovebird) had proventricular megabacteriosis, and 1 of those cockatiels also had intraluminal gastric yeast and ingluvial
yeast with pseudohyphae.
To determine the tolerance doses of cutaneous and mucosal tissues of normal birds in order to provide more effective radiation treatment for tumors that have been shown to be radiation responsive in other species, ingluvial mucosa and the skin over the ingluvies of 9 ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were irradiated in 4-Gy fractions to a total dose of either 48, 60, or 72 Gy using an isocentric cobalt-60 teletherapy unit.
This position was chosen to maximize radiation to the skin and ingluvial mucosa, while minimizing spinal exposure.