The literature has documented many classifications of resources and capabilities, for instance, Barney (1991) proposes that advantage-creating resources must contain four attributes, namely, value, rareness, inimitability
and non-substitutability; Grant (1991) argues that levels of durability, transparency, transferability and replicability are important determinants; Collis and Montgomery (1995) suggest five tests namely inimitability
, durability, appropriability, substitutability and competitive superiority; Amit and Schoemaker (1993) produce a list of eight criteria including complementarity, scarcity, low tradability, inimitability
, limited substitutability, appropriability, durability and overlap with strategic industry factors.
In other words, the RBV may be able to provide an unmatched description of resources' value, uniqueness, inimitability
, and internal organizational deployment, but lacks the analytical apparatus to assess the types of "contracts" to be used for governing particular types of resources, whereas the asset specificity concept in TCE provides the intellectual basis of such apparatus.
Prior work suggests that whereas the value of resources and capabilities depends on the market within which a firm operates (Barney, 2001), the rarity, inimitability
, and substitutability of resources and capabilities depends much more on the extent to which they are developed in unique historical circumstances (what Dierickx and Cool (1989) call time compression diseconomies), path dependent (Arthur 1989), causally ambiguous (Lippman and Rumelt 1982; Reed and DeFillippi 1990), socially complex (Barney 1986b), intangible (Polanyi 1962), invisible (Itami 1987), or are bundled together in complex ways (what Dierickx and Cool (1989) call interconnected assets stocks and asset mass efficiencies) (Barney 2011).
Third, our explication of MNC multiplicity as a complex web of social-identity frames and the social interactions between them suggests that they may be an important source of not only knowledge creation, but also inimitability
due to the social complexity at hand (Barney 1991).
These are arranged according to their radicals, in order to more effectively approach the Qur'an's linguistic secrets and its inimitability
6 Language Designers tended to Managers used a more (See also Table 3) use a richer limited set of terms vocabulary to to explain the express what essence of "good" constitutes "good" design; for example, design, for example, they used the word differentiating "original" to between unique express both (meaning inimitability
and "inimitable") and novelty.
In RBT studies, the strategic resources controlled by value, rareness, and inimitability
to implement their heterogeneity capabilities and complementary processes (Barney, 1991) are widely believed to have an effect on competitive advantage and improve performance.
Barney, (1991) observed that four indicators, viz., value, rareness, inimitability
, and non-substitutability, provide a firm the much required ability to generate sustained competitive advantage.
: An Analysis of Interfirm Differences in Efficiency Under Competition." Bell Journal of Economics 13: 418-453.